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About ice cream
Why do we call it "ice cream?"
European introduction
myths & legends
early American flavors
first USA ice cream parlor?
Sorbet dinner course
1893 NYC favorites
1920s ice cream specials
Augustus Jackson
Howard Johnson's 28 flavors
carton shrinkage
a la mode
baked Alaska
banana splits
bombes
cherries on top?
Cho cho bars
chocolate ice cream
egg creams
French ice cream
fried ice cream
gelato
heavenly hash
hokey pokey
ice cream cake
ice cream cones
ice cream sandwiches
ice cream sundaes
Italian ice & granita
malted milk
milk shakes
Neapolitan ice cream
novelties
oyster ice cream
parfait
Philadelphia-style ice cream
popsicles
rocky road
sherbet & sorbet
soda fountains


Ice cream
Food historians tell us the history of ice cream begins with ancient flavored ices. The Chinese are generally credited for creating the first ice creams, possibly as early as 3000 BC. Marco Polo is popularly cited for introducing these tasty concoctions to Italy. This claim (as well as his introducing
pasta to Italy) are questionable. The ice creams we enjoy today are said to have been invented in Italy during the 17th century. They spread northward through Europe via France. "French-style" ice cream (made with egg yolks) and its American counterpart, "Philadelphia-style," are (no eggs, or egg whites only) enriched products made with the finest ingredients. Vanilla is the most popular flavor of this genre. Food historians tell us this type of ice cream originated in the 17th century and proliferated in the early 18th.

As time and technology progressed, ice cream flavors (Pistachio, Rocky Road, Chunky Monkey), complicated confections (19th century Neapolitan bricks, English bombes & American cakes), and novelty concoctions (hokey-pokey treats, ice cream bars, popsicles, sundaes, sodas & banana splits), proliferated.

Where did they get the ice before we had refrigerators?

Why do we call it "ice cream?"
Excellent question! Centuries ago people started making refreshing summer-time desserts by taking sweet cream (the richest part of milk) or custard (egg-based puddings) and cooling them down with ice. The chillier the cream, the more solid the product. In sum: the first "iced creams" were so named because the appelation described the process. Seasonal fruit flavors predominated. Different words were used in other languages. Before modern refrigeration mostly wealthy people had access to ice (and by association, iced cream) in the summer. This made ice cream a rare treat. It was not until the late 19th century "ice cream" was consumed by Americans across all socio-economic levels. According to the Oxford English Dictionary the first print occurrence of the word "iced cream" as in 1688. The term "ice cream" shows up in 1744. That corresponds approximately with the time when "modern" ice creams were first manufactured. treat until mass modern technology punched in.

European introduction & evolution
"Ice cream is reputed to have been made in China as long ago as 3000 BC, but it did not arrive in Europe (via Italy) until the thirteenth century, and Britain had to wait until the late seventeenth century to enjoy it (hitherto, iced desserts had been only of the sorbet variety)... by the time Hannah Glasse and Elizabeth Raffald were giving recipes for it in the mid-eighteenth century, it was evidently well established. At first, ice cream was simply as its name suggests: cream, perhaps sweetened, set in a pot nestling in ice to cool it down. But before long recipes became more sophisticated, and the technique of periodic stirring to prevent the formation of ice crystals was introduced, and ice cream was set on a career of unbroken popularity. As early as 1821 we find mention of "ice-cream gardens' in New York....Since introducing ice cream to Europe in the Middle Ages, Italy has never relinquished its lead in theis field, and over the centuries the manufacture of ice cream has in many countries been the province of Italian emigres."
---An A to Z of Food and Drink, John Ayto [Oxford Univeristy Press:Oxford] 2002 (p. 167)

"The first ice creams, in the sense of an iced and flavoured confection made from full milk or cream, are thought to have been made in Italy and then in France in the 17th century, and to have been diffused from the French court to other European countries...The first recorded English use of the term ice cream (also given as iced cream) was by Ashmore (1672), recording among dishes served at the Feast of St. George at Windsor in May 1671 One Plate of Ice Cream'. The first published English recipe was by Mrs. Mary Eales (1718)...Mrs. Eales was a pioneer with few followers; ice cream recipes remained something of a rarity in English-language cookery books...As for America, Stallings observes that ice cream is recorded to have been served as early as 1744 (by the lady of Governor Blandon of Maryland, nee Barbara Jannsen, daughter of Lord Baltimore), but it does not appear to have been generally adopted until much later in the century. Although its adoption then owed much to French contacts in the period following the American Revolution, Americans shared 18th century England's tastes and the English preference for ice creams over water ices, and proceeded enthusiastically to make ice cream a national dish."
---Oxford Companion to Food, Alan Davidson [Oxford University Press:Oxford] 1999 (p. 392-3)

"The first substantial piece of writing on ice cream was an anonymous 84-page manuscript entitled L'Art de faire des Glaces which, through watermarks in the paper, has been dated "circa 1700." It is a "how to" work of some sophistication, giving detailed instructions for the preparation of such delights as apricot, voilet, rose, chocolate, and a caramel ice creams and water ices. A number of British cookbooks of the eighteenth century contain ice cream formulas. One such work is Mrs. Hannah Glasse's The Art of Cookery Made Easy (1747)--considered by scholars to be the first major cookbook written by a woman in what was until then an almost exclusively male domain. In 1768 there appeared in Paris what is undoubtedly the most outlandish treatise on the subject ever to be published. Called The Art of Making Frozen Desserts, it is a 240-page offering by one M. Emy, who not only gives formulas for "food fit for the gods," but offers theological and philosophical explanations for such phenomena as the freezing of water. The tone of the book is set by its frontispiece, which depicts a brace of angels delivering ice cream to earth from heaven. Although frozen desserts were becoming common in regal circles, not until 1670 when the Cafe Procope opened in Paris did "iced creams" and sherbets spread to the masses."
---The Great American Ice Cream Book, Paul Dickson [Atheneum:New York] 1972 (p. 18-19)

Recommended reading

On the Web
Ice Cream, International Dairy Foods Association
Ice Cream, University of Guelph

Ice cream myths & legends
No other food boasts offers more legends of discovery than ice cream. This tribute to popular ubiquity merits examination. Is it possible to separate fact from fiction? Sometimes. On the other hand, sometimes it's more interesting to embrace myths in context rather than deconstruct for scientific purpose. The stories are as delectable as the product itself. What are they really telling us about our collective gastronomic legacy?

Catherine de Medici & the "introduction" ice cream to France
"How curious then, in modern times--meaning from the mid ninteenth century on--it has come to be believed that Catherine de Medici was accompanied to France by a bevy of Italian confectioners who taught their French colleagues how to make ices and frozen sherbets. Since the story is widely believed in Italy, appears indeed to be central to the credo of the Italian ice-cream trade...it is necessary to say here that although the source of the story remains unidentified, it is plain that its origins are in the nineteenth century, the likelihood being that it rose out of a lingistic confusion...connected in some way perhaps with the stories of ice introduced into France during Henry III's reign--or shortly before it--and while Catherine herself was still in a powerful position as Queen Mother and Regent. I do know that of two people who helped disseminate it in England one was Abraham Hayward, QC, author of The Art of Dining, published in 1852. In a footnote to his chapter on Paris restaurants,
Hayward remarked that it had been established that Catherine de Medici and her Florentine confectioners had brought the art of making ices to the French capital. He gave no chapter or verse, but his footnote gives the impression that it was something he recently read, whether in French or in English perhaps we shall one day find out. It would be agreeable to nail the legend to its origin. The second English writer, who did more than Haywood to establish the Medici story, was Mrs. Isabella Beeton. Very probably she had read it in The Art of Dining. Among many startling statements in her famous Household Management of 1861--'the Italians with the exception of macaroni, have no specially characteristic article of food' is a fair example--was her suggestion that in the light of Catherine's great innovation in the matter of ice-creams she might be forgiven the massacre of St. Bartholomew."
---Harvest of the Cold Months: The Social History of Ice and Ices, Elizabeth David [Viking:New York] 1994 (p. 44-45)
[Note: David also investigates legend regarding Procope's opening the first ice cream parlor in Paris.]

Mr. Hayward's quote: "We are unable to fix the precise time when [ices/ice cream] there began to be cultivated with success, but it met with the most enlightened encouragement from the merchant-princes of Florence, and the French received the first rudiments of the science from the professors who accompanied Catherine de Medicis to Paris...*It is clearly established that they introduced the use of ices into France. Fricandeaus were invented by the chef of Leo X. Coryat, in his 'Crudities Gobbled Up,' writing in the reign of James 1., says that he was called 'Furcifer' by his friends, from his using their 'Italian neatnesses namely forks.'"
--- The Art of Dining or, Gastronomy and Gastronomes, A. Hayward, new edition [John Murray:London] 1883 (p. 6)

Mrs. Beeton's statement reads thusly: "Do ladies know to whom they are indebted for the introduction of ices, which all the fair sex are passionately fond of?--To Catherine de' Medici." (General Observations: Ices, last paragraph).

More ice cream invention stories: ice cream cones, popsicles, banana splits & sundaes.

First ice cream recipe published in America?
According to the venerable food historian Karen Hess, the first ice cream recipe published in the United States appeared in The New Art of Cookery, According to the Present Practice/Richard Briggs, circa
1792. This recipe is almost exactly the same as Mrs. Raffald's (see below). Ms. Hess observes: "the first American recipe that I know of that features vanilla on its own is one for vanilla ice cream in Mary Randolph's The Virginia Housewife, 1824; similar recipes had, however been appearing in France, and Jefferson brought back one in 1784, showing once again how tht printed word lags behind usage." Source: Martha Washington's Booke of Cookery, transcribed by Karen Hess [Columbia University Press:New York] 1981 (p. 13)
[About vanilla.]

Our survey of 18th-early 19th century English and American cookbooks confirms fruit ice creams were probably the most popular. Most cookbooks of the day contained several recipes for flavored creams, including one recipe especially for ice cream. In theory, any sweet cream recipe could be processed to become ice cream. Most period cookbooks note that any type of fruit may be used.

Which flavors were available in the 18th century?
People have been adding flavors to ice/ice cream right from the beginning! Ice cream began as granita (ice). This product was often flavored with fruit or honey. In the 18th century when the first ice creams (as we know them today) were produced, they were likewise flavored. Period recipes are excellent indicators of popular flavorings:

[1747]
"To make ice cream.
Take two pewter basons, one larger than the other; the inward one must have a close cover, into which you are to put your cream, and mix it with raspberries, or whatver you like best, to give it a flavour and a colour. Sweeten it to your palate; then cover it close, and set it into the larger bason. Fill it with ice, and a handful of salt: let it stand in this ice three quarters of an hour, then uncover it, and stir the cream well together: cover it close again, and let is stand half an hour longer, after that turn it into your plate. These things are made at the pewterers."
---The Art of Cookery Made Plain & Easy, Hannah Glasse, facsimile of the first edition, 1747 [Prospect Books:Devon] 1995 (p. 168)

[1769]
"To make Ice Cream.
Pare, stone, and scald twelve ripe apricots, beat them in a fine marble mortar. Put to them six ounces of double-refined sugar, a pint of scalding cream, work it through a hair sieve. Put it into a tin that has a close cover, when you see your cream grow thick round the edges of your tin, stir it, and set it again till all grows quite thick. When your cream is to be turned out of, then put on the lid. Have ready another tub with ice and salt in as before, put your mould in the middle and lay your ice under and over it, let it stand four or five hours. Dip your tin in warm water when you turn it out. If it be summer you must not turn it out til the moment you want it. You may use any sort of fruit if you nave not apricots, only observe to work it fine."
---The Experienced English Housekeeper, Elizabeth Raffald, facsimile 1769 edition with an introduction by Roy Shipperbottom [Southover Press:East Sussex] 1997 (p. 126) [NOTE: Mrs. Raffald's other fruit cream (non-ice) recipes employ lemon, raspberry, and orange. She also offers recipes for pistachio and chocolate cream.]

[1780s] Thomas Jefferson's French ice cream

[1792]
Ice Creams
. Take a dozen ripe apricots, pare them very thin and stone them, scald and put them into a mortar, and beat them fine; put to them six ounces of double refined sugar, a pint of scalding cream, and rub it through a sieve with the back of a spoon; then put it into a tine with a close cover, and set it in a tub of ice broken small, with four handsful of salt mixt among the ice; when you see your cream get thick round the edges of your tin, stir it well, and put it in again till it becomes quite thick; when the cream is all froze up, take it out of the tin, and put it into the mould you intend to turn it out of: mind that you put a piece of paper on each end, between the lids and the ice cream, put on the top lid, and have another tub of ice ready, as before, put the mould in the middle, with the ice under and over it; let it stand four hours, and do not turn it out before you want it; then dip the mould into cold spring water, take off the lids and paper, and turn it into a plate. You may do any sort of fruit the same way."The New Art of Cookery, According to the Present Practice, Richard Briggs [W. Spotswood, R. Campbell, and B. Jonhson:Philadelphia PA] 1792 (p. 399-400)

[1824]
Ice Creams
. When ice creams are not put into shapes, they should always be served in glasses with handles.
Vanilla Cream. Boil a vanilla bean in a quart of rich milk until it has imparted the flavour sufficently; then take it out, and mix with the milk, eight eggs, yelks and whites, beaten well; let it boil a little longer--make it very sweet, for much of the sugar is lost in the operation of freezing."
Raspberry Cream. Make a quart of rich boiled custard; when cold, pour it on a quart or ripe red raspberries, mash them tin it, pass it through a sieve, sweeten and freeze it."
Peach Cream. Get fine soft peaches, perfectly ripe, peel them, take out the stones, and put them in a China bowl; sprinkle some sugar on and chop them very small, with a silver spoon; if the peaches be sufficiently ripe, they will become a smooth pulp; add as much cream or rich milk as you have peaches; put more sugar and freeze it."
Citron Cream. Cut the finest citron melons, when perfectly ripe, take out the seeds and slice the nicest part into a China bowl, in smal pieces, that will lie conveniently, cover them with powdered sugar, and let them stand several hours, then drain off the syrup they have made, and add as much cream as it will give a strong flavour to, and freez it. Pine apples may be used in the same way."
Observations on Ice Cream. It is the practice with some indolent cooks, to set the freezer, containing the cream, in a tub wtih ice and salt, and put it in the ice-house; it will certainly freeze there, but not until the watery particles have subsided, and by the separation destroyed the cream. A freezer should be twelve or fourteen inches deep, and eight or ten wide. This facilitates the operation very much, by giving a larger surface for the ice to form, which it always does on the sides of the vessel; a silver spoon, with a long handle, should be provided for scraping the ice from the sides, as soon as formed, and when the whole is congealed, pack it in moulds (which must be placed with care, lest they should not be upright,) in ice and salt till sufficiently hard to retain the shape--they should not be turned out till the moment they are to be served. The freezing tub must be wide enough to leave a margin of four or five inches all around the freezer when placed in the middle, which must be filled up with small lumps of ice mixed with salt--a larger tub would waste the ice. The freezer must be kept constantly in motion during the process, and ought to be made of pewter, which is less liable than tin to be worn in holes and spoil the cream by admitting the salt water."
---The Virginia Housewife, Mary Randolph, facsimile 1824 edition with historical notes and commentaries by Karen Hess [University of South Carolina Press:Columbia SC] 1984 (p. 174-179)

First chocolate ice cream?
Our research confirms chocolate ice cream existed in the 18th century. But? It was the exception, not the rule. Most period
iced creams were flavored with fruit. We do not find chocolate ice creams in popular domestic English period cookbooks. Mrs. Raffald's 1769 recipe for chocolate cream is not frozen. Earliest print refernce is from a French cookbook, c. 1768.

"...any collected manuscript from the last quarter of the seventeenth century will surely have recipes involving chocolate; chocolate became the rage among ladies and those who would be."
---Martha Washington's Booke of Cookery, transcribed by Karen Hess [Columbia University Press:New York] 1981, 1995 (p. 451)

"Chocolate, coffee, and tea were the three important new beverages in seventeenth-century Europe, and they were all used to make unfrozen creams. Menon made creams with all three...But these creams were all creams, not ice creams. It took some time before all thee of the new beverages were transformed into frozen creams and ices. Emy made chocolate and coffee ice creams and mousses and chocolate ices...He introduced his recipe 'Glace de Creme au Cacao' by explaining that cacao was the nut with which one makes chocolate. He described four types, with different shapes and degrees of bitterness and fattiness, and said all could be used to make ice cream. aid it was necessary to understand how to distinguish among them, and that it was important to choose large heavy ones with no green or raw taste or mold. One bought cacao at a spice shop or from chocolate makers, either roasted or not, according to Emy. Naturally, he included detailed instructions for roasting it. His recipe 'Glace de Creme au Cacao' was more complex than his usual cremes glaces. It was also unusual in its use of egg whites rather than yolks. He started by making a glace royale, which is an icing sugar made with stiffly beaten egg whites and sugar...Emy mixed cream into it and cooked it slowly, stirring it carefully until it thickened. Then he added two more ounces of roasted cacao and cooked the mixture in a bain marie, or warm water bath, until the flavor of the chocolate permeated the cream. After an hour and a half to two hours, he strained the mixture, then chilled it and froze it. He suggested adding a little ambergris, cinnamon, or vanilla, and he said he didn't think it was possible to make a better ice cream of its type. Emy also made what he called a glace de creme au chocolate blanc, but it was not made with white chocolate. He said it was made the same way as his glace de creme au cacao, except that, before putting the cream on the fire, he added half grain of ambergis, half a vanilla bean, and two grains of cinnamon. He said it would be 'delicious' (his italics). His recipe for chocolate ice, 'Glace de Chocolate L'Eau,' was less complicated. He simply melted some bon chocolate de sante, or 'good chocolate of health,' mixed it with sugar syrup cooked to the petit lisse stage, strained it, and froze it. He said if one wished, one could use chocolate a vanille and add vanilla, clove, and lemon."
---Of Sugar and Snow: A History of Ice Cream Making, Jeri Quizno [University of California Press:Berkeley] 2009 (p. 41-42) [NOTE: Emy's book was titled The Art of Ice Cream. It was published in Paris, 1768.]


Augustus Jackson
Several people over the years have queried us with regards to the illusive Augustus Jackson, "Philadephia inventor of ice cream." Our survey of historic newspaper articles, ice cream texts, and reference sources confirms Mr. Jackson's existence and his ice cream connection. We can also confirm period prospering catering establishments owned and managed by Black Americans in Philadelphia. Given Mr. Jackson's period, we respectfully acknowledge the dearth of historic print information confirming his existence and accomplishments. The claim about him "inventing" ice cream is, however, easily debunked. About
ice cream.

[1894]
"The Origin of Ice Cream. The man who invented ice cream was a Negro by the name of Jackson, and in the early part of the present century kept a small confectionery store. Cold custards, which were cooled after being made by setting them on a cake of ice, were very fashionable, and Jackson conceived the idea of freezing them, which he did by placing the ingredients in a tin bucket and completely covered with ice. Each bucket contained a quart, and was sold for $1. It immediately became popular, and the inventor soon enlarged his store, and when he died left a considerable fortune A good many tried to follow his example, and ice cream was hawked about the streets, being wheeled along very much as the hokey-pokey carts are now, but none of them succeeded in obtaining the flavor that Jackson had in his product.--Baker's Helper."
---New York Times, March 11, 1894 (p. 18)
[NOTE: this information was reprinted verbatim in the Grand Union Cook Book, Margaret Compton [Grand Union Tea Co.:New York] 1902 (p. 291)

[1928]
"Augustus Jackson, a Philadelphia Negro, was the first to make America's favorite frozen confection--ice cream--according to the records in the possession of citizens living in the City of Brotherly Love. In 1832 there were five Negro confectioners in Philadelphia. One of them was Jackson, know in his day and time as 'the man who invented ice cream.' He also was a caterer. For an extended period he enjoyed a monopoly of the sale of this dessert. He demanded $1 a quart, and had no difficulty selling all he made...The Jackson establishment was in what was then known as Goodwater Street, now St. James, between Seventh and Eight streets. After his death his daughter continued the business for several years on Walnut street, near Tenth street. Members of the Jackson family, with their limited facilities, were unable to meet the public demand for ice cream, and other confectioners and caterers, principally Negroes, began making it to their financial advantage."
---"Philly Citizen Was First Maker of Ice Cream," Lester A. Walton, The Pittsburgh Courier, May 19, 1928 (p. 12)

[1932]
"Ice cream, a more universally distinctive American dish than many others which through of earlier introduction are sectional in character, was invented by Augustus Jackson, a Negro confectioner, who was prominent here during the latter half of the 19th century."
---"Social Worker Cites Contributions of Negro to Philadelphia's Progress," Wayne Hopkins, Philadelphia Tribune, June 2, 1932 (p. 9)

[1989]
This contemporary print source by a respected USA reference book publisher declares Mr. Augustus credit as fact:
"Inventions of free blacks were...recorded. The first black granted a patent was probably Henry Blair's 1834 seed planter patent. But again, records fail the historian for the race of patent-seekers was rarely noted...Other black inventions were not patented for various reasons, as was the case with ice cream, invented by Augustus Jackson of Philadelphia in 1832."
---The Negro Almanac: A Reference Work on the African American, Harry A. Ploski & James Williams [Gale Research:Detroit] 5th edition 1989 (p. 1077)

[1995]
"In the late 1820s, Augustus Jackson, who had worked as a cook at the While House, moved to Philadelphia and started a catering business. Jackson became one of Philadelphia's wealthiest African Americans, making ice cream for his own clientele and also supplying two ice cream parlors owned by African Americans. (At least one source has erroneously credited Jackson with being the first American to make ice cream."
---Chocolate, Strawberry, and Vanilla: A History of American Ice Cream, Anne Cooper Funderburg [Bowling Green State University Popular Press:Bowling Green OH] 1995(p. 14)
[NOTE: Ms. Funderburg supplies footnotes for her facts. Let us know if you want them.]

Related food? Philadelphia-style ice cream.


Howard Johnson's 28 flavors
New England restauranteur Howard Deering Johnson built an orange-roofed empire with the slogan "28 flavors." His black Cadillac sported Massachusetts license plate HJ-28. It should be easy to obtain this famous list, yes? Not!!!

The rise and fall of Howard Johnson's restaurant empire is well documented. The list of his ice cream flavors melts through historic cracks. Why 28? The Howard Johnson article in the Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America suggests to us it might have commemorated the year 1928, when Johnson's success became apparent. His first restaurant opened the following year. This source notes "the original flavors, vanilla, chocolate, and strawberry, gradually increased to 28." (2004: Vol. 1, p. 691)

Our survey of historic newspapers revealed Johnson's brilliant marketing strategy. As with most ice cream chains touting a specific number of flavors, there was in truth dozens, if not hundreds, more. Johnson's ice cream was manufactured in his own factories; flavors were dispersed according to season and region. That explains why we don't see a specific ice cream list on printed restaurant menus.

[1948: Howard Johnson's 28 flavors, in order of popularity]
1. Vanilla
2. Chocolate
3. Chocolate Chip
4. Strawberry
5. Coffee
6. Maple Walnut
7. Pistachio
8. Butterscotch
9. Banana
10. Peach
11. Peppermint
12. Burgundy Cherry
13. Butter Pecan
14. Caramel Fudge
15. Frozen Pudding
16. Macaroon
17. Orange Pineapple
18. Pecan Brittle
19. Butterscotch
20. Black Raspberry
21. Pineapple
22. Cocoanut
23. Fruit Salad
24. Lemon
25. Grape Nut
26. Peanut Brittle
27. Ginger
28. Apple"
---"28 Flavors Head West," Life (magazine), September 6, 1948 (p. 74)

[1957: regional variation]
"Howard Johnson's home office rules that there must be twenty-eight flavors available in each orange-roofed outlet. The twenty-eight may be selected, according to regional tastes, from a master list of thirty-six. The newest here is 'Burgundy Cherry.' This chain reports that for the first time in years, old-fashioned pistachio has climbed to among the top ten in popularity. Many producers shy away from the green cream because the nuts are difficult to obtain in steady quantity. Howard Johnson is catering to this spreading nostalgia streak in ice cream customers by reviving the old English type use on the orignal Johnson menus."
---"Food: Ice Cream, Vanilla to Mango," New York Times, May 20, 1957 (p. 42)

[1962: Howard Johnson's 28 flavors, alphabetical order]
"Banana, black raspberry, butter pecan, butter crunch, butterscotch, caramel fudge, chocolate, chocolate chip, coconut, coffee, cherry vanilla, frozen pudding, fudge ripple, lemon, macaroon, maple walnut, mint chip, mocha chip, orange pineapple, peach, pecan brittle, pineapple, peppermint stick. pistachio, strawberry, strawberry ripple, Swiss almond, vanilla."
---"Spotlight on Business: Howard Johnson's--Father, Son, and Grandson Give Three Cheers for the Old Orange and Blue," Newsweek, August 13, 1962 (p. 66-67)


First American ice cream parlor?
Who opened the first American ice cream parlor, where, and when? Excellent questions with no single answer. Our research uncovers two "claimants" to the title of first commercial American establishment selling ice cream. They were both located in 1770s downtown New York City. The person most often credited is Philip Lenzi, who established his store (probably) in 1774. Advertisments published in local period newspapers document his existence. Lenzi sold ice cream to his customers, along with other popular sweets of the day. The other person is Giovanni Bosio, supposedly establishing a "gelateria" in 1770. To date, we find no historic/academic evidence supporting this claim. If you can help, please let us know. In both cases, the name of the shop (confectionery shop, ice cream parlor, gelateria) is not mentioned.

Philip Lenzi, London confectioner
Ice cream historians credit advertisements published by Philip Lenzi, a confectioner from London, as the first print evidence of commercial ice cream sales in America. Our survey of primary documents confirm the advertisements (see text below). Mr. Lenzi arrived in New York City in 1773, presumably his shop opened the following year. We know from the introductory advertisement announcing Mr. Lenzi's arrival that he made ice cream. The first true "advertisement" of said product appeared in New New York Gazette and Weekly Mercury, May 12, 1777. We have no way to determine exactly when the product was first available for sale. Mr. Lenzi's advertisement does not reference the name of his shop. This was typical of the times. Most 18th century specialty shops were simply known by their proprietor's name and trade: Philip Lenzi, confectioner.

"The first appearance of ice cream in America is not known, but the first report of any sort indicating its presence in the colonies is a letter, written by a guest of Governor William Bladen of Maryland, which states: '...we had dessert no less Curious; among the Rarities of which it was Comnpos'd was somefine Ice Cream which, with the Strawberries and Milk, eat most Deliciously.' So far as is known, the first public advertisement of ice cream anywhere in the world was paid for by Philip Lenzi, a confectioner, who announced in the New York Gazette of May 12, 1777, that his ice cream 'may be had almost every day.' It can be assumed that ice cream was gaining a toehold in New York during the 1780s, because other ads began appearing in the New York papers. In 1781 a Lenzi competitor named Joseph Corre was the first to advertise the words Ice Cream in large conspicuous letters, and an announcement in the New York Post Boy (1786) read: 'Ladies and Gentlemen may be supplied with ice cream every day at City Tavern by their humble servant Joseph Crowe."
---The Great American Ice Cream Book, Paul Dickson [Atheneum:New York] 1992 (p. 20,22)

Here is the text of the original May 12, 1777 advertisement:
"Philip Lenzi, Confectioner from London, Having removed from Dock-street to Hanover-Square, No. 517. Takes this method to return his sincere thanks to all his friends and customers for their past favours, and hopes for a continuance, and will have in this present season, a very great variety of the best sweetmeats; preserves marmelades, jellies, &c. in brandy, and very reasonable rate as the times will permit, for read money only; and every thing of the said branch will be executed to all perfection as in the first shops in London. Said Lenzi will, in the ensuing season, gie a very good price for the very best sort of fruit, such as strawberries, gooseberries, cherries, raspberries, peaches, pine apples, green gages, apricots, &c. & c. May be had almost every day, ice cream; likewise ice for refreshing wine, &c. N.B. Wanted to said business, and apprentice---Premium is expected."
---advertisement, New-York Gazette, and Weekly Mercury, May 12, 1777 (p. 3)

This 1773 snippet announces the arrival of Mr. Lenzi in America, providing biographical notes. It mentions one of Lenzi's specialties is ice cream.
"Just arrived from London, Monsieur Lenzi, Confectioner. Makes and sells all sorts of fine French, English, Italian and German biskets, preserved fruits; also in brandy, jams, pastes, and jellies, which will be warranted for two or three years, with good care; all sorts of sugar plumbs, dragees, barley sugar, white and brown sugar candy, ice cream and fruits, sugar ornaments which will soon be ready for sale, or to lend out, with many other articles in all the greatest perfection, which he will sell and the most reasonable rates, he being content with a moderate profit, and spares no cost or pains to have every thing of the very best quality. He will undertake to furnish any public entertainment, as he has had the management of several given at Balls, Masquerades, &c. in most of the principal cities of Europe. He hopes for the countenance and encouragement of the public, which he will ever gratefully acknowledge. His arriving here so late in the season has prevented him from laying in to a great stock of fruits, &c. as he would otherwise have done. He will reside at the house of Mr. Richard Waldron, near the Exchange, till he can get a house more suitable for his business."
---advertisement, Rivington's New York Gazetteer, November 25, 1773 (p. 4)

An ad published in the New-York Gazette, and Weekly Mercury, January 13, 1777 (p. 3) provides yet another address:
"Philip Lenzi, Confectioner from London, At his shop near Coenties Market and Broad Street."

Giovanni Bosio, Italian Gelateria
A handful of contemporary sources credit Giovanni Bosio, an Italian ice cream maker, for opening the first ice cream parlor (aka gelateria) in New York City, 1770. Some state Bosio came from Genoa; others Sicily. Our survey of historic newspapers, academic journals, ice cream history books, and trade association texts returns no mention of Bosio. This, in itself. does not automatically discount the claim. We will continue our search for documentation. The earliest print reference we find is from 1988. No original/ primary source, street address or shop name provided.

"Ice cream came to North America in 1770 when the first ice cream parlor opened. The New York parlor was opened by an Italian...Giovanni Bosio of Genoa."
---"Frosty Favorites," David Kingsmill, Toronto Star, July 13, 1988 (p. F1)

"In 1770, another Sicilian Giovanni Bosio, opened a gelateria in America."
---"What's Sweet, Cold, and Oh So Flavorful?" Larry Brown, Seattle Times, July 24, 1991 (p. D3)


When did 1/2 gallon ice cream containers begin disappearing?
2002. In that year, ice cream packaging began 'slenderizing' with a new round shape containing 1 cup less product. Companies cited rising ingredient/production costs. Questioning consumers were assured the new packages eliminated dreaded "knuckle-muck."

"The half-gallon ice cream container - the sweet standard of grocery store freezers for decades - is quietly starting to shrink. While manufacturers over the years reduced the package size of everything from candy bars to dish detergent, the traditional ice cream "brick" remained what it was - the half-gallon. Now, pinched by rising costs of ingredients and afraid to raise prices already above $5, at least two ice cream makers are silently phasing out the half-gallon and replacing it with a 1.75-quart carton, a half-pint smaller. Others are considering doing the same. Dreyer's, which is based in Oakland, Calif., and sells the Dreyer's and Edy's brands, began introducing the smaller package in March. During the transition, the new and old cartons can be found side-by-side. Same shape and design - and price. But one has two quarts, the other 1 3/4 quarts. Asked about the move, Dreyer's cites a $30 million jump last year in the cost of butter fat and other ingredients. Dreyers is one of the biggest manufacturers, with annual sales of $1.4 billion. "We have over 100 flavors and many of them - because people are preferring indulgent, chunky flavors - cost more to produce than regular flavors like vanilla," said spokeswoman Dori Bailey. "We'd like to keep the cost at a price that's more affordable for folks," she said. Schwan's, which sells retail primarily via a 7,000-vehicle fleet of home delivery trucks, made the switch in late 2001. "When costs trend up, you have a choice to make: Do you raise the unit price or do you reduce the unit?" said John Nabholz, spokesman for Schwan's Sales Enterprises, based in Marshall, Minn. "You can't lose money on a product and stay in business." Other major ice cream makers are sticking with the half gallon for now. About three quarters of all ice cream is sold by the half gallon, according to the International Ice Cream Association. Good Humor-Breyer's, which boosted its half-gallon price by 30 cents in mid-2001 because of rising costs, has no plans to shrink its packages. "If we can avoid passing it on to the consumer, that's what we'll do," said spokeswoman Lisa Piasecki. "So far, we have." Turkey Hill dairy, in Lancaster, Pa., has no plans to switch from half gallons but introduced the idea to a pair of focus groups last week, to gauge consumer reaction, according to spokeswoman Melissa Mattilio. Using the 1.75-quart and half-gallon Edy's containers as examples, Turkey Hill market researchers asked them how they felt about such shrinkage. "We just asked if anyone was aware that this had happened," Mattilio said. "No one had noticed at all. When it was pointed out to them, they said, 'That doesn't seem too right, but what are we really going to do about it?"' Customers do notice change, and some don't appreciate it. "Everybody's doing it," complained Dorothy McGrath, 73, of Linwood, N.J., as she shopped the ice cream aisle at a Super Fresh supermarket in Egg Harbor Township recently. "The same thing happened with laundry detergent. The brands I used to buy in 100-ounce bottles are now 80 ounces, only the price is the same. They're cheating the public, because they don't advertise it." McGrath bought two half gallons of Turkey Hill brand ice cream, which were $1.99 on sale. The only brands offered in the 1.75-quart sizes were Edy's and Healthy Choice. She gets so angry when product sizes shrink that she sometimes switches to a different brand in protest. That's a legitimate concern, according to ice cream industry consultant Malcolm Stogo. "The public does not like to see downsizing. They think they're being cheated. Putting a 1.75-quart container out instead of a half-gallon container is very deceptive," said Stogo, author of "How to Succeed in the Incredible Ice Cream Business." Manufacturers have heard such complaints, but sales haven't been significantly affected, they say. "We've had a few people say, 'Wait a minute, there's less ice cream in this package,"' said Nabholz, of Schwan's. "But our research shows there's effectively the same yield. It's a more user-friendly package and it's more efficient." The lidded containers eliminate the messy problem of half-gallon bricks that could be - and frequently were - opened at both ends, and reduce "knuckle muck," which is the ice cream that gets on your hands as you dig your spoon deep into the box, he said. The company's sales have remained strong, in part because ice cream is a luxury consumers are willing to pay for. "Most consumers view ice cream as a luxury purchase, a small indulgence, and are somewhat more price-elastic," said Eric Katzman, food analyst for Deutsche Bank."
---"Ice Cream Makers Shrink 'The Brick'," John Curran, Associated Press Writer,AP Online November 18, 2002


a la mode (aka topped with ice cream)
Food historians confirm the European practice of topping baked goods (most notably pie and cake) with rich cream (sauce, whipped) dates to Renaissance times. Historic cookbooks offer several examples; none of which are titled "a la mode." Back in the day, "a la mode" generally pertained to a popular way of preparing beef. While the phrase is French, we find no supporting print evidence the combination of ice cream topped dessert originated in that country. Barry Popik, etymolotgist extrodinaire, traces the phrase to the
late 1890s. Our survey of historic American newspapers confirms the phrase became popular in the early 20th century.

"In French cuisine, a la mode (literally 'in the fashion') refers to a dish of beef braised with vegetables and served either hot in a rich brown sauce or cold in aspic. It has some currency in English in the eighteenth century and nineteeth centuries in the compressed form alamode beef. In the USA, however, a la mode denotes a dish (such as apple pie) served with ice cream."
---An A-Z of Food & Drink, John Ayto [Oxford University Press:Oxford] 2002 (p. 216)

The Oxford English Dictionary [Online version] places the first print reference to "a la mode" meaning with ice ream on top in 1903 (see definition 1b)

"[Fr., in the manner or fashion (15th c. in Littré), adopted in Eng. in 17th c. as an adv., and used also as adj. and n. In the advb. sense now again treated as Fr. Formerly often written all-a-mode, as if containing all. Cf. all alive, all-agog.] 1. a. phr. In the fashion, according to the fashion. 1649 SELDEN Laws of Eng. I. lxxi. (1739) 198 Commanders that are never a-la-mode but when all in Iron and Steel. 1655 FULLER Ch. Hist. I. 14 With Bands, Cuffs, Hats and Caps, ‘al a mode’ to the Times. 1657 SANDERSON Serm. (ed. 4) Pref. 1, I confess they are not Alamode. 1680-1 Roxb. Bal. (1883) IV. 631 And All-a-mode of the brisk Monsieur, In the midst of the Pit, like ourselves we do sit. 1751 CHESTERFIELD Lett. 241 (1792) III. 108 If you can get that name generally at Paris, it will put you à la mode. b. Cookery. Of a dessert: served with ice-cream. U.S. 1903 Everybody's Mag. VIII. 6/2 Tea and buns,..apple pie à la mode and chocolate were the most serious menus. 1928 Delineator Cook Bk. 734 ‘Pie a la mode’ is pie served with ice-cream. 1949 L. P. DE GOUY Pie Book 65 Apple Pie... Serve warm or cold, with cheese, a la mode or with whipped cream. 1971 ‘D. HALLIDAY’ Dolly & Doctor Bird v. 67 We had..apple pie à la mode. À la mode in the United States means ice-cream. 1985 N.Y. Times XXI. 29/3 Highlights are the chocolate mousse cake, with its intense, creamy filling, and the nearly black chocolate cake, served à la mode in a pool of surprisingly insipid butterscotch sauce."

This historic newspaper article suggests professional baseball players might have been responsible for promoting this combination:
"Major league ball players as a class, race, or division of society, whichever they might be called are about as free from the ordinary weaknesses of the flesh as any body of men in the world. Wine, women and song trouble them very little in the playing season, and even their gambling is of that mild and friendly nature which makes it more of a pastime than a means of enriching one' self. But there is one great vice among the athletes; on from which comparatively few of them are free. Eating ice cream is this failing...The Tigers are particularly gripped by this gastronomic vice and on several occasions this spring they have cleaned the hotels that entertained them of every bit of ice cream sherbet, punch and frozen pudding...The big leaguers are great people to eat sweets...Pie runs next to ice cream in popularity, though it is a poor second. The rest of the play on the dessert division of the card is scattering, with no single article worthy to be mentioned in the same breath as ice cream, pie and pie 'a la mode.'"
---"Ice Cream Consumption Vice Among Big Leaguers," Los Angeles Times, May 10, 1913 (p. III4)

"Pie a la mode particularly appears to have the community in its clutches."
---"Too Much Pie Beat Quakers," Los Angeles Times, November 12, 1914 (p. III2)

Sunset [magazine] published a story titled "Pie a la mode," by Frank Condon, June 1923 (p. 20-22)


Baked Alaska
Baked Alaska, frozen cream encased in meringue and served hot, descends from Renaissance era
Trifles, fanciful presentations of cream and sponge biscuits. Frozen versions were perfected in 18th-19th century Europe. Desserts approximating "Baked Alaska" surface in the 19th century. The earliest iterations were fried or baked iced cream encased in pastry. Baked Alaska (aka Omelete Norvegienne, Omelete en Surprise), surfaced in the late 19th century. It was an "improved" version of popular fried cream, fried ice cream, and fried ice. Why call it an omelette? Possibly because the ice cream was encased in eggs (meringue)--or--some French dessert omelettes were "finished" in a hot oven.

Who "invented" Baked Alaska?
There are four competing stories; two American, two French. The key to discovering the truth is examining the original source for credibility and context. And? Whenever possible, a identifying a description of the dish in question. There are significant differences between "invented," "introduced," and "made popular."

1. Americans love to credit Thomas Jefferson for serving the first Baked Alaska in 1802. Primary accounts, published 70 years later, confirm he served a dessert composed warm ice cream in pastry shell. This precursor was not a "true" Baked Alaska, but it was similar in effect.

2. Charles Ranhofer, Delmonico's New York City, marking the occasion of Seward's Alaska purchase, 1867. Print evidence strongly suggests this claim is true. It also makes sense in place and context. According to The Oxford English Dictionary, the first print reference to "Baked Alaska" occured in 1882. "5. orig. U.S. A dessert consisting of sponge cake and ice cream covered with meringue, cooked in a hot oven for a very short time so that the ice cream does not melt (usu. more fully baked Alaska). With distinguishing word: a specified variety of this. Also with lower-case initial. The naming of this dessert is attributed to Delmonico's restaurant, New York, where it was designed to commemorate the Alaska Purchase; there are earlier examples of similar desserts consisting of ice cream baked in a pastry shell. 1882 G. A. Sala Amer. Revisited I. vi. 90, I dined at Delmonico's hard by the Fifth Avenue Hotel... Among the dainties..was an entremet called an ‘Alaska’. The ‘Alaska’ is a baked ice..surrounded by an envelope of carefully whipped cream which..is popped into the oven." Delmonico's: A Century of Splendor/Lately Thomas reiterates: "...[Sala] was served a 'baked Alaska'--an incredible confection...consisting of ice cream in an envelope of whipped cream, the whole toasted in the oven! (The dish had been invented by Ranhofer at the time of Secretary of State Seward's purchase of Alaska for the United States.)" (p. 191).

Larousse Gastronomique (1938, 1961) provides these theories:
"It is said that the invention of the surprise omelette, called 'a la norgvegienne', is attributed to an American-born physicist called Benjamin Thompson whose work in England earned him the title of Count Benjamin Thompson Rumford. This omelette was launched into popularity about 1895, at the Hotel de Paris in Monte Carlo, by Jean Giroux, who was then in charge of the kitchens there." LG also offers this origin theory: "If...we are to believe the culinary column of the Liberte, in which Baron Brisse wrote on 6th June 1866, it was the master-cook of the Chinese Mission, visiting Paris at the time who, if not invented, at least popularised this paradoxical omelette, which combines the cold and hot...'During the stay of the Chinese Mission in Paris, the master-cooks of the Celestial Empire have exchanged civilities and information with the chefs of the Grand Hotel. (The Grand-Hotel was opened in 1862 and its first chef was called Balzac.) 'The French chef in charge of sweet courses is particularly delighted with this circumstance. He has learnt from his Chinese colleague the method of baking vanilla and ginger ices in the oven. Here is how to proceed with this delicate operation: Chill the ice until hard, wrap each in a very light pastry crust and put into the oven. The pastry is baked before the ice protected by the pastry shel can melt. This phenomenon is explained by poor conductability of certain substances."
---Larousse Gastronomique, Prosper Montagne, edited by Charlotte Turgeon and Nina Froud [Crown Publishers:New York] 1961 (p. 398)
[NOTE: Happy to send the original 1938 Larousse Gastronomique French text upon request.]

3. "Count" Rumford lived 1753-1814. His contribution is not elaborated by Larousse Gastronomique. Elizabeth Benson's 1974 abbreviated Englished edition of Ali-Bab's Encyclopedia of Practical Gastronomy (actual edition/year unclear) offers this headnote: "Omelette Souflee en Surprise. This lovely-looking dessert...is a pretty corollary of the discovery made in 1804, by eminent American physican, Thomas de Rumfort, that stiffly beaten egg white is a poor heat conductor." (p. 410). Ali-Bab (aka Henri Babinski) was a respected scientist and culinary expert of his day. His work Gastronomie Pratique was introduced in 1907 and survived several editions through 1928. The first edition (the only one we find online, free) does not contain the Rumford note. We will continue searching. We find no print evidence (so far) supporting Rumford's "claim" to having invented the prototype Baked Alaska, or any other dish. The 1895 monte Carlo reference is sometimes misattributed Rumford. The original text confirms this note is not connected.

4. The Chinese dish appears to be a version of fried ice cream, not "true" Baked Alaska. Our research indicates pastry-wrapped baked ice cream was popular at the same time. Period recipes for "Celestial Omelettes" are completely different.

[1888]
"Home cooks armed with [Mary] Lincoln's Frozen Dainties could make something very similar [to Ranhofer's Alaska, Florida]. Lincoln called it 'Ice-cream en Degusier' and used a sheet of sponge cake rather than individual biscuits...Just as Ranhofer did, she topped the cake with ice cream, covered it with meringue, and baked it 'quickly in a hot oven.' She said it was 'recommended chiefly for its novelty.'"
---Of Sugar and Snow: A History of Ice Cream Making, Jeri Quinzio [University of California Press:Berkeley CA] 2009 (p. 150)
[NOTE: We have a copy of Lincoln's 1888 book on order. Will upload recipe soon.]

[1894]
"(3538). ALASKA, FLORIDA (Alaska, Florida).
Prepare a very fine vanilla-flavored Savoy biscuit paste (No. 3231). Butter some plain molds two and three-quarters inches in diameter by one and a half inches in depth; dip them in fecula or flour, and fill two-thirds full with the paste. Cook, turn them out and make an incision all around the bottom; hollow out the cakes, and mask the empty space with apricot marmalade (No. 3675). Have some ice cream molds shaped as show in Fig. 667, fill them half with uncooked banana ice cream (No. 3541), and half with uncooked vanilla ice cream (No. 3466); freeze, unmold and lay them in the hollow of the prepared biscuits; keep in a freezing box or cave. Prepare also a meringue with twelve egg-whites and one pound of sugar. A few moments before serving place each biscuit with its ice on a small lace paper, and cover one after the other with the meringue pushed through a pocket furnished with a channeled socket, beginning at the bottom and diminishing the thickness until the top is reached; color this meringue for two minutes in a hot oven, and when a light golden brown remove and serve at once."
The Epicurean, Charles Ranhofer [Accessed online 26 April 2014]
[NOTE: Many food history sources cite the 1893 edition of this book. We do not have ready access to it and cannot confirm.]

[1896]
"Baked Alaska

Whites 6 eggs.
6 tablespoons powdered sugar.
2 quart brick of ice cream.
Thin sheet sponge cake.
Make meringue of eggs and sugar as in Meringue I., cover board with white paper, lay on sponge cake, turn ice ccream on cake (which should extend one-half inch beyond cream), cover with meringue, and spread smoothly. Place on oven grate and brown quickly in hot oven. The board, paper, cake, and meringue are poor conductors of heat, and prevent the cream from melting. Slip from paper on ice cream platter."
---Boston Cooking-School Cook Book, Fannie Merritt Farmer, facsimile 1896 edition [Weathervane Books:New York] 1974 (p. 375-376)

[1902]
"Alaska Bake
. Cover a brick mold of ice cream thickly with meringue, dust it with sugar. Stand the dish on a board, and brown it in a hot oven."
---Mrs. Rorer's New Cook Book, Sarah Tyson Rorer [Arnold and Company:Philadelphia] 1902 (p. 601)
[NOTE: Compare with Mrs. Rorer's
Fried Ice Cream, 1886.]

[1903]
"4419. Omelette Norvegienne.

Place an oval-shaped base of Genoise 2 cm (2/5 in) thick on a silver dish; the length of the oval should be proportionate to the size of then omelette. Place wither a cream or a fruit ice of the selected flavour on the Genoise, forming an oval pyramid. Cover the ice with a layer of either ordinary meringue or stiff Italian meringue and smooth with a palette knife so as to give an even coating 1 1/2 cm (3/5 in) thick. Decorate with some of the same meringue using a piping bag and tube; place in a very hot oven to cook and colour the meringue rapidly but without the heat penetrating to the ice inside."
---The Complete Guide to the Art of Modern Cookery, Escoffier 1903, The first translation into English by H.L. Cracknell and R.J. Kaufmann of Le Guide Culinaire in its entirety [John Wiley:New York] 1979 (p. 527)
[NOTE: Escoffier offers several nine variations on this theme. Each sports a different name and slightly different ingredients.]

[1909]
"An ideal Summer dessert is baked Alaska. To make it pack a round mold with vanilla ice cream. Cover and gind the seams of the mold with strips of muslin dipped in melted paraffin. Repack in ice and salt, and stand aside for at least two hours. At serving time turn the ice cream on a folded napkin on a platter. Beat the whites of four eggs until light, add four tablespoons of powdered sugar, and whip until light and dry. Cover the ice cream thoroughly with this meringue, and dust well with powdered sugar. Stand the platter on a cold board, and run the whole in a hot oven for a moment to brown. Serve at once."
---"Delicious Dishes for Summer," New York Times, July, 4 1909 (p. X6)

[1917]
"Surprise Omelets, Alaska
. Place an oval-shaped piece of Genoise or sponge cake about one-half inch thick on an oblong dish. On top of the cake put a layer of vanilla ice cream about one inch in thickness, cover it with meringue or with vanilla omelet souffle preparation and bake in a quick oven so that the heat will not reach the ice cream...Norvegienne. Same as Alaska, using meringue instoead of vanila souffle preparation."
---Eggs in a Thousand Ways, Adolphe Meyer [Hotel Monthly Press:Chicago] 1917 (p. 109)
[NOTE: Meyer's Eggs, and How to Use Them, [1898] doesn not offer this recipe.]

[1925]
"Baked Alaska.
--A solidly frozen brick of ice cream which has been wrapped in a thick meringue of powdered sugar and egg whites whipped thoroughly and then placed in a very hot oven until the meringue browns. The cream will not melt if the oven is hot enough. A typlical hotel dainty, which cannot be served economically at either luncheonette or soda fountain."
---The Dispenser''s Formulary, Soda Fountain (trade magazine) [Soda Fountain Publications:New York] 4th edition, 1925 (p. 26)

[1955]
"Baked Alaskas.

1. Start heating oven to 450 degrees F. For cake base, choose one of Alaskas, p. 428; set cake base on brown paper (1/2" larger than cake) on cookie sheet.
2. Make meringue: With electric mixer or egg beater, beat 3 egg whites until they stand in peaks when beater is raised. Slowly add 6 tablesp. granulated sugar, beating until stiff and glossy.
3. Quickly fill or top cake base with about 1 qt. Very firm ice cream, as directed below. Quickly cover ice cream and base completely with meringue. If desired, sprinkle with slivered almonds, shaved chocolate, or shredded coconut. Bake 4 to 5 min., or until delicate brown.
4. Remove from oven at once; slip 2 spatulas between Alaska and paper; transfer Alaska to chilled serving dish. Garnish with berries or fresh, frozen, or canned peach slices, etc. Serve at once.
5. To serve ablaze, pour a little lemon extract over 3 sugar cubes; set on top of meringue; light; carry to table.
Alaskas:
Igloos: Use bakers' spongecake layer as base. Pile ice cream on top, leaving 1/2" free around edge.
Brownie: Use panful of uncut brownies as base. Top with brick of ice cream.
Little Baked: Use 6 bakers' dessert shells as base. Top each with well-drained canned pineapple slices. Place scoop of ice cream on each.
Traditional: Use 1 piece thin spongecake, 8"X6"X1". Top with brick ice cream.
Surprise: Use 9" tube spongecake as base. Hollow out as in Frozen Ice-Cream Angel,...Fill through with 2 to 3 pt. Ice cream...
P.S. You can have Baked Alaska on short notice if you keep cake and ice cream on hand in your freezer."
---Good Housekeeping Cook Book, Dorothy B. Marsh [Good Housekeeping:New York] 1955 (p. 427-8)

[1972]
"Baked Alaska

1 layer Genoese Cake (see index)
4 egg whites
7 tablespoons powdered sugar
1 teaspoon vanilla
1-1/2 pints chocolate or vanilla ice cream, frozen in a mold
Meringue
Take a layer of Genoises Cake which is cut a little larger than the mold of the ice cream. Put it on a board covered with heavy paper. Beat the egg whites until stiff; add the sugar gradually, and continue beating. Add the vanilla. Unmold the ice cream onto the cake. Cover thickly with meringue, place on a baking sheet, and brown in a very hot oven (450 degrees F.) for about 5 minutes. Serve immediately. Serves 6 to 8."
---A Treasury of White House Cooking, Francois Rysavy, as told to Frances Spatz Leighton [G. Putnam's Sons:New York] 1972 (p. 214-215)
[NOTES: (1) Recipe for Genoese Cake appears on p. 142. (2) This recipe is included in the Kennedy chapter.]

Related food? Fried ice cream.


Banana splits
Two American towns claim the banana split as their own: Latrobe PA and Wilmington OH. Which one deserves the honor? You decide...

According to The Food Chronology, James Trager [Henry Holt:New York] 1995 "The banana split was created [in 1904] by Latrobe, Pa., pharmacy apprentice David Strickler, 23, who had returned from a visit to Atlantic City, where he was inspired by watching a soda jerk. He placed three scoops of ice cream on a split banana, topped it with chocolate syrup, marshmallow, nuts, whipped cream, and a cherry, sold it for a dime, and was soon imitated by other soda jerks, who generally used three different ice cream flavors-chocolate, strawberry, and vanilla-topped with chocolate, strawberry, and pineapple, nuts, whipped cream, a cherry, but no marshmallow. Strickler eventually took of the pharmacy and continued making banana splits until he sold the place in 1965." (page 380)

Food historians confirmvbananas were introduced to the American public in the 1880s. These exotic fruits were actively promoted and quickly embraced. Late 19th and early 20th century American cookbooks contain an interesting variety of banana recipes. Many of these simly added bananas to extant recipes: banana ice cream, banana ambrosia, banana cake, etc. Antiques catalogs confirm glass serving dishes were manufactured to accomodate this odd, new shape. About bananas.


Cho cho bars
According to the records of the
U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, Cho Cho ice cream novelties were introduced by the Carnation Company June 6, 1939. The trademark was reassigned to the Popsicle Company in 1982. The brand/product expired in 2003. Original record here:

"Word Mark CHO-CHO Goods and Services (CANCELLED) IC 030. US 046. G & S: Ice Cream. FIRST USE: 19390605. FIRST USE IN COMMERCE: 19390605 Mark Drawing Code (5) WORDS, LETTERS, AND/OR NUMBERS IN STYLIZED FORM Design Search Code Serial Number 71420448 Filing Date June 13, 1939 Current Filing Basis 1A Original Filing Basis 1A Registration Number 0378236 Registration Date June 4, 1940 Owner (REGISTRANT) Carnation Company CORPORATION DELAWARE 100 West 10th Street Wilmington DELAWARE (LAST LISTED OWNER) Popsicle Industries, Inc. UNKNOWN Englewood NEW JERSEY Assignment Recorded ASSIGNMENT RECORDED Type of Mark TRADEMARK Register PRINCIPAL Renewal 2ND RENEWAL 19800604 Live/Dead Indicator DEAD Cancellation Date June 22, 2001"

"America's gone Cho-Cho! Boys, girls, men, women...millions thrilled by big feast of cooling, delicious, nourishing. Chocolate Malted ice Cream for a Nickel! Yes, everywhere the great news is spreading about CHO-CHO-the brand-new "taste thrill way" to eat malted ice cream! And no wonder...for you've never had anything like CHO-CHO before! It's a big, nourishing feast of delicious ice cream, chock full of theat rich, chocolate malted flavor everybody loves. You, too, will be wild about CHO-CHO! Just think! For only a nickle you can get this big, tasty treat--on a stick--of delicious ice cream chock full of rich chocolate malted flavor. Look! it's Easy to Eat CHO-CHO. Here's all you do. Hurry to your favorite ice cream dealer's and get a CHO-CHO now. Then, one!--roll the cup between your hands. Two!--press bottoms of cup with your thumb. There!--pull out with the stick. And you're all set to enjoy the grandest-tasting ice cream sensation in years. Join the crowds that are flocking to your ice cream dealer's now. Hear them cheer this new way to eat chocolate malted ice cream. And discover an exciting new taste thrill--with CHO-CHO! See special, money-saving introductory coupon. CHO-CHO Company, Milwaukeee, Wisconsin."
---Display ad, Los Angeles Times, April 28, 1940 (p. G3) [NOTE: This ad contains illustrations of the product and copy of the coupon.]


Egg creams
The general concensus of the food historians are with regards to egg creams, as Americans know them today, are:

  1. Egg creams were invented at the beginning of the 20th century.
  2. They originated in New York City [Brooklyn].
  3. The have never contained eggs or cream.
Debates regarding the exact genesis and "true recipe" of this confection are intense. The same holds true for many beloved foods we eat today, esp. those born of the soda fountain era. Culinary evidence confirms egg-based soda recipes with chocolate syrup did exist, under different names. They descended from early egg nog recipes. "Egg Drin", a popular early 20th century soda fountain concoction, is strikingly similar to the classic egg cream.

"By 1891, there were more soda fountains than bars in New York according to On the Town in New York by Michael and Ariane Batterberry. In the 1920s, the "egg cream," an eggless, creamless libation was invented in a New York soda fountain...The annals of time have obscured inventor and the rational and philosophical underpinnings of the drink's name."
---New York Cook Book, Molly O'Neill [Workman Publishing:New York] 1992 (p. 197)

"Egg cream. A New York City soda-fountain confection made from chocolate syrup, milk, and seltzer. The simplicity of the egg cream is deceptive, for its flavor and texture depend entirely on the correct preparation. There is no egg in an egg cream, but if the ingredients are mixed properly, a foamy, egg-white-like head tops the drink. Nevertheless, as David Shulman pointed out in American Speech (1987), there was a confection, called an "egg cream" syrup listed in W.A. Bonham's Modern Guide for Soda Dispensers (1896) that was made with both eggs and cream, but no chocolate. This was probably not the egg cream that gained legendary fame in eastern cities. Also, Lettice Bryan in The Kentucky Housewife (1839) gives a recipe for an orange-flavored custard dessert called "egg cream." There seems no basis to believe the legend the Yiddish actor Boris Thomashefsky brought the idea for the egg cream back from Paris after having tasted a drink called chocolate et creme. Indeed the unchallenged claim for the invention of the egg cream is that Louis Auster, a Jewish immigrant who came to the United States about 1890 and opened a candy store at Stanton and Avenue D. According to Auster's grandson...the egg cream was a matter of happenstance. "My [grandfather] was fooling around, and he started mixing water and cocoa and sugar and so on, and somehow or other, eureka, he hit on something which seemed to be just perfect for him." Auster's egg creams became famous...and were based on a secret formula that has never been revealed...The chocolate syrup used was made in the rear of the store, and windows were blacked out for privacy. "The name of the egg cream was really a misnomer, " recalled Stanley Auster. "People thought there was cream in it, and they would like to think there was egg in it becuase egg meant something that was really good and expensive. There was never any egg, and there never was any cream." Auster also insisted a glass, not a paper cup, and ice-cold milk were basic to the success of a good egg cream. After Louis Auster died...the recipe passed to his family, with the last batch of the secret syrup made up...around 1974. The first printed reference to the egg cream was in 1950. Without accesss to Auster's syrup, other soda fountains and candy stores made the drink with "Fox's u-bet Chocolate Flavor Syrup," Created by Herman Fox some time before 1920 in Brooklyn, now considered the most widely accepted ingredient in the mix."
---Encyclopedia of American Food and Drink, John F. Mariani [Lebhar-Friedman:New York] 1999 (p. 120)

"Fox's U-Bet Chocolate Syrup is a classic. You absolutely cannot make an egg cream without [it]...The firm, founded sometime between 1910 and 1920...began in a Brownsville basement...The recipe for U-Bet remains the same: Brooklyn water, sugar, corn sweeteners, cocoa, and some "secret things." The name "U-Bet dates from the late 20s when Fox's grandfather got wildcatting fever and headed to Texas to drill for oil. "You bet" was a friendly term the oilmen used. His oil venture a failure, he returend to the old firm, changing Fox's Chocolate Syrup to Fox's U-Bet...Fox has fan letters form Mel Brooks, Don Rickles...You shouldn't have to ask, but there is no egg or cream in an egg cream. Just milk, seltzer, and U-Bet."
---The Brooklyn Cookbook, Lyn Stallworth and Rod Kennedy Jr [Alfred A. Knopf:New York] 1994 (p. 358).]
[NOTES: (1)This book contains a recipe for the "correct" Brooklyn egg cream. (2)Fox's is still in business.

"How to Make an Egg Drin.
First break the egg in a 10-ounce soda glass, then pour in the desired syrup or syrups and add sweet cream if required, then beat the ingredients in the electric mixer thoroughly. Now pour this into a shaker, then turn in fine soda stream, then pour bakc and forth from your shaker to your glass two or three times. In pouring back and forth, do not overdo it as it will thin the drink. Pour into glass after mixing and sprinkle a little ground mace or nutmeg over the top. Most fountains now have the electric mixers but if you do not have one, you should use a heavy soda or mixing glass instead of the 10-ounce glass, then after adding cream, add a little crushed ice which will break the egg. Place shaker on top of glass and shake up and down until thoroughly mixed, then remove heavy soda glass and fill shaker with fine soda stream, then mix by pouring back and forth from a 10-ounce soda glass to shaker. Pour last in the glass and sprinkle top with ground mace or nutmeg. Egg drinks are profitable and a large trade on them can be created if care is exercised in their mixture. The following formulas are for the most common egg drinks: Egg Chocolate: One egg, 2 ounces chocolate syrups and 2 ounces sweet cream. Proceed as per directions above."
---Rigby's Reliable Candy Teacher, W. O. Rigby, 19th edition 1919 (?) (p. 242)
[NOTE: This book also contains recipes for Egg Flip (vanilla syrup), Egg Calisaya (lemon syuurp & elixir calisaya), Egg Phosphate (lemon & orange syrup & several dashes acid phosphate), Egg Lemonade (juice of one lemon and sugar), Egg Nectar (nectar syrup), Mint Flip (mint syrup), Raspberry Flip (raspberry syrup), Egg Limeade (lime juice & powdered sugar), Egg Pineapple (pineapple syrup), Egg Coffee (coffee syrup), Egg Orgeat (Oregat syrup), Frisco Flip (orange juice & pineapple syrup), Tulip Flip (pineapple syrup, rose syrup & orange syrup).

"Egg Chocolate
Chocolate syrup...1 ounce
White and yolk of 1 egg
Crushed ice, small quantity
Shake well, then add plain carbonated water sufficient to fill tumbler. Stir with twist bar spoon, strain, then pour alternately from tumbler to shaker, and serve. This drink is rather thin and should not be priced at more than 10 cents."
---The Dispenser's Formulary, Compiled by the Soda Fountain [Trade Magazine], fourth edition [Soda Fountain Publications:Nw York] 1925 (p. 77)


French ice cream
French-style ice creams descended from medieval custards and creams. Freezing them was an idea made possible by advances in technology. A survey of old French, English, and American cookbooks confirms this recipe was well known, although it was known by many different names.

"About 1700 a pamphlet of ice-cream and sherbet recipes was published entitled L'Art de Faire des Glaces, and by then the major capitals of Europe were well familiar with the dish...Thomas Jefferson, who wrote extensive notes on making the confection, has been credited with bringing "French-style" ice cream, made with egg yolks, to America. He also had an ice-cream-making machine he called a "sorbetiere" at Monticello, where he followed a recipe that called for a stick of vanilla...two bottles of cream, and an egg-custard mixture, boiled, stirred, reheated, strained, and put in an ice pail'."
---Encyclopedia of American Food and Drink, John F. Mariani [Lebhar-Friedman:New York] 1999 (p. 163-4)

Thomas Jefferson's ice cream (included eggs); manuscript recipe

HISTORIC RECIPES

[1828--France]
"Cream a la Vanille.
Take one or two sticks of vanilla, which infuse in some boiling cream; next put in the eggs as you do for other creams. If you are making a fromage a la glace, you must put a smaller quantity of eggs, as isinglass is to be put to stiffen it; and keep constantly stirring the cream on the fire, while the eggs are doing. Mind that the eggs are not overdone. When you perceive the cream is getting thick, put the melted isinglass in, and rub it through a tammy, then put it into a mould and into ice. When you wish to make the cream more delicate, let it get cold; then put it into a vessel over ice, before you put any isinglass into it, and whip it; when quite frozen, put in cold melted isinglass: this method requires less isinglass, and the jelly is much lighter."
---The French Cook, Louis Eustache Ude, facsimile Englished edition [Arco Publishing:New York] 1978 (p. 360-1)

[1828--United States]
"Vanilla Cream.
Boil a Vanilla bean in a quart of rich milk until it has imparted the flavour sufficiently; then take it out, and mix with the milk, eight eggs, yelks [yolks] and whites, beaten well; let it boil a little longer--make it very sweet, for much of the sugar is lost in the operation of freezing."
---The Virginia House-wife, Mary Randolph, facsimile reprint edition with historical notes and commentaries by Karen Hess [University of South Carolina Press:Columbia] 1984 (p. 174)
[NOTE: Food historian Karen Hess states this is the first recipe for ice cream printed in an American cook book.]

[1890s--England]
"Custard Ice Cream.
2 Quarts New Milk
1-lb White Sugar
6 Fresh Eggs.
2-oz Fresh Butter.
1/4 to 1/2 oz. Vanilla Essence.
Process.--Well whisk the eggs with a fork or whisk, then stir them into the new milk, adding the butter and sugar; put the whole into a clean pan and place on a slow clear fire; keep stirring all the time, well rubbing the bottom of the pan until the mixture comes to the boiling point, when it will get thickish; be careful that it does not quite boil or it will curdle; remove the pan from the fire and strain through a fine hair sieve; stand it aside until cold; when quite cold, put the custard in the freezer, adding the vanilla, and freeze either by hand or machine as directed; a tidge of saffron would make the cream look richer."
---Skuse's Complete Confectioner, [W.J. Bush & Co:London] 1890s(p. 149)


Fried ice cream
While recipes for fried, coated dairy products are ancient, food historians generally agree the practice of encasing frozen cream in hot edible shell dates to the 19th century. Fancier presentations followed. Think:
Baked Alaska.

[1802]
"Washington, February 10, 1802. 'On Tuesday I wrote that I was going to dine with the President [Jefferson]. The party was easy and sociable, as all these parties are. Among other things ice-creams were produced in the form of balls of the frozen material inclosed in covers of warm pastry, exhibiting a curious contrast, as if the ice had just been taken from the oven."
---"Dr. Mitchill's Letters From Washington: 1801-1813," Harper's New Monthly Magazine, April 1879 (p. 744)

[1870]
"All the delicacies of the season....fried ice cream, roast ice..."
---Port Jervis Evening Gazette [NY], August 30, 1870 (p. 3)

[1886]
"Fried Cream.
1 pint of milk
Yolks of three eggs
1/4 of a nutmeg, grated
1 tablespoonful of corn-starch
1/2 cup of sugar
1 teaspoonful of vanilla
4 tablespoonfuls of flour
Put the milk on to boil in a farina boiler, moisten the flour and corn-starch in a little cold milk, then add it to the boiling milk. Stir, and boil five minutes. Now add the sugar, nutmeg, and the yolks of three eggs well beaten. Let cook one minute; take from fire and add flavoring. Turn into a square mould, and stand in a cold place for four or five yours. Then sprinkle some bread crumbs on a baking-board, turn the cream out on them, and cut it into squares. Dip them first in beaten egg, then in crumbs, and fry in boiling fat. Serve with powdered sugar sifted over."
---Mrs. Rorer's Philadelphia Cook Book, Mrs. S(arah) T(yson) Rorer [Arnold and Company:Philadelphia PA] 1886 (p. 418-419)
[NOTE: Compare with Mrs. Rorer's
Alaska Bake, 1902.]

[1894]
"Fried Ice Cream
has become very popular in Philadephia. A small, solid cake of ice crea...is enveloped in a thin sheet of pie-crust, and then dipped in boiling lard or butter long enough to cook the outside covering to a crisp. If served immediately the ice cream is found to be as solidly frozen as when it was first prepared. The process of frying is so quickly accomplished and the pastry is so good a protector that the heat has no change to reach the frozen cream. Another novelty is baked ie cream, which as a meringue on top."
---"Fried Ice Cream," Los Angeles Times, May 6, 1894 (p. 14)
[NOTES: (1) This article appeared in several newspapers across the country. (2) Meringue version is Baked Alaska.]

[1897]
"Fried Ice Cream.
--A small, solid cake of the cream is enveloped in a thin sheet of pie crust, and then dipped in boiling lard or butter long enough to cook the outside to a crisp. Served immediately, the ice cream is found to be as solidly frozen as when it was first prepared. The process of frying is so quickly accomplished, and the pastry is so good a protector, that the heat has no chance to reach the frozen cream. It is pronounced delicious."
---Breakfast Dinner and Supper, or What to Eat and How to Prepare It, Maud C. Cook [J.H. Moore:Philadelphia] 1897 (p. 511-512)

[1952]
Gourmets who visit San Francisco enthuse about this dessert, which is to be found at a few of the best hotels and restaurants. It's not often served at home, apparently because most cooks don't dare risk it, but it's really very simple to make. It turns up in a San Diego cook book, under then name of "Bonfire Entre." It was called that because the fried cream was cut in sticklike pieces and stacked up on individual plates like miniature and roofless log cabins. A couple of lumps of sugar, brandy-soaked, went into the center of each pile of "logs," and matches graced the side of each plate. The lights were lowered, and everyone lit up. Whoopee!
Scals a pint of heavy cream and add to it 2 teaspoons of Jamaica rum, 1/8 teaspoon of salt, 1/4 cup of sugar, a 1/2-inch stick of cinnamon, and 5 tablespoons of cornstaarch moistened in 3 tablespoons of milk. Cook long enough to remove the starch taste, then beat in 3 egg yolks adn cook over hot water, whisking continuously, until thick. Remove cinnamon and pour mixture, about 3/4 of an inch deep, into a fat dish (an oblong Pyrex dish is perfect) to become cold. Turn out on a board, cut into squares or oblongs, and roll in finely grated almonds. Now dip in beaten egg, and then in finelyy crushed salted crakers. Chill again, then fry in deep fat at 390 degrees F. just long enough to brown the nutts. Pour on heated rum, set aire, and serve flaming. This recipe seres 8.
1 pint heavy cream
2 teaspoons Jamaica rum
1/8 teaspoon salt
1/4 cup sugar
1/2-inch stick of cinnamon
5 tabespoons cornstarch
3 tablespoons milk
3 egg yolks
Grated almonds
Beaten egg
Cracker Crumbs"
---West Coast Cook Book, Helen Evans Brown [Cookbook Collectors Library reprint edition] 1952 (p. 66)

[1972]
New York Times article profiling Cape May, New Jersey boardwalk fare ("In Cape May, the Summer Stroller May Shop and Snack, Away from Traffic," Fred Ferrettis, July 3, 1972 (p. 6) refers mentions "French fried ice cream (vanilla, frozen, dipped in batter, rolled in crushed corn flake crumbs, then fried to order.).

Some Japanese-American restaurants offer ice cream tempura. While tempura dates to the 16th century, this is not a traditional Asian dish. It is the product of savvy restauranteurs adjusting menus meet to American expectations.


Gelato
The story of gelato begins hundreds of years ago. About
ice cream.

"Gelato. Ice cream, made with egg custard, sugar, and flavorings. From the latin gelare (to freeze). The Arabs were the first to develop the kind of fruit ice that the Italians called sorbetto, but the Chinese seem to have invented milk-based ice cream, which Marco Polo described on his returned from the Orient. The idea for both frozen desserts were brought to France by a cook named Bernardo Buontalenti, either with Caterina de'Medici in 1533 or with Maria de'Medici in 1600. It was, however, a Sicilian who made custard-based ice cream, a wildly popular and fashionable confection: Francesco Procopio dei Coletti, an impovershed Palermo aristocrat, emigrated to Vienna in 1672, first to work for a coffee purveyor, then as owner of his own coffeehouse. Before long he ran a chain of such cafes throughout Central Europe, then took the idea to Paris in 1675, where he opened the Cafe Procope...where he began selling Viennese-style ices and, before long, custard-rich ice creams. Coffee houses in Italy followed the Paris model, and gelato became hugely popular. In Italy today, the best ice creams in Italy are made by local gelaterie..."
---The Dictionary of Italian Food and Drink, John Mariani [Broadway Books:New York] 1998 (p. 115-6)

"Ice cream is not really the proper translation for gelato, since unlike American ice cream Sicilian gelato is not made with cream at all, but with crema rinforzata, which is nothing other than the omnipresent biancomangiare in a particularly liquid form. One old recipe calls for goat's milk...Modern Sicilian ice-cream parlors have abandoned goat's milk."
---Pomp and Sustenance: Twenty-Five Centuries of Sicilian Food, Mary Taylor Simeti [Ecco Press:Howell NJ] 1989 (p. 294-295) [NOTE: includes modernized recipe.]

"For centuries, Italian ices and ice ream have been a summer treat on their home ground and indeed in all of Europe, but during the last 30 years or so gelato (Italian ice cream) has also become a fixture, at least in Rome, in winter as well. It's not just vanilla and chocolate ice cream either. Artichoke, mango, whisky, rhubarb and other exotic flavors are today on the broadening palette of the ice cream parlors. Their frequent sign 'Produzione Propria' means that gelat artists are at work, using their secret recipes...Gelato seems to taste better than homogenized or standard American ice cream because it isn't as deeply frozen and therefore has a creamier texture, and because it usually contains plenty of fresh eggs and cream...In Rome, the most renowed ice cream emporium is Giolitti's...The history of Giolitti's is a good example of the recent fortunes of gelato. More than 50 years ago the grandfather of the rpesent owner started out at the same spt with a dairy shop that became famouse for its excellent cappuccino. Gelato was then just a minor summer sideline...Gelato...may have originated in Florence; one Bernardo Nuontalenti is mentioned by chroniclers as its presumed inventor...During the Napoleonic era Tortoni's Cafe Napolitain, an opulent gelato haven on the Boulevard des Italiens, was such a rage in Paris that the name Tortoni for some time was synonymous with Italian ices."
---"Cold Comfort in Rome," Paul Hoffmann, New York Times, April 10. 1983 (p. XX6)

"Italian gelatos differ from French ice creams in having a more powerful flavor and denser texture, thanks to the inclusion of more solids and less air. Although they're usually made with milk instead of cream, they often contain more eggs than French ice creams and thus taste equally rich, if not richer. Technically speaking, gelato is any kind of freeze served at an Italian ice cream shop, or gelateria, including gelato itself as well as granita...sorbetto...and a very light-textured ice cream, semifreddo, made with whipped cream or beaten egg whites...The best known gelato flavors are vanilla, a very rich vanilla called crema, and chocolate, often combined with hazelnuts (gianduia). Liqueur flavors are also popular, and so is espresso coffee."
---Ice Cream! The Whole Scoop, Gail Damerow [Glenbridge Publishing:Macomb IL] 1991 (p. 90)
[NOTE: This book contains recipes for Vanilla, Espresso, Chocolate, Chocolate Cappuccino, Apricot, Marzipan and Zabaione Gelato.]


Heavenly hash
What is Heavenly Hash? Excellent question with five possible answers: fresh fruit salad, mixed fruit cocktail, "glorified" ambrosia, ice cream and candy. Recipes generally combine fruit (fresh or candied), chopped nuts, and cream (whipping cream, marshmallows). Heavenly Hash can be served cool, chilled, or iced. It can appear at the beginning or the end of the meal.

Why call it heavenly hash?
The term "Heavenly Hash," in a culinary sense, first surfaces in American print in the last quarter of the 19th century. This coincides with the introduction of
Ambrosia, "Food of the Gods," a popular mixed fruit salad similar in scope and purpose. Possibly the names played off each other in friendly competition? A careful examination of primary sources also confirms similar recipes can be found with different titles.

Our survey of historic American newspapers and cookbooks suggests Heavenly Hash recipes proliferated in the until the 1940s. They were generally ignored until the 1980s, when Heavenly Hash was rediscovered by upscale ice cream manufacturers.

[1887]
“St. Louis Republican: ‘Haven’t you heard of heavenly hash?’ asked a pretty little matron down at the cooing school…’Why, heavenly hash is just too delicious, and the name suits it to a dot. This is what it seems to be, and I believe it is; Oranges, bananas, lemons, apples, raisins, and pineapples are cut up into little bits—hashed, you know, and worked just enough to thicken their juices, almost to jelly, and then served with a little grated nutmeg. But the serving is the pretty part. It is after this wise: Cut a hole just large enough to admit a spoon in the stem end of an orange, and through that hole take out the inside of the orange, which you then fill with the heavenly hash and served on a pretty little glass fruit-dish with lemon or orange leaves decorating the dish. You can imagine this heavenly hash to be a delightful new dainty, which at some recent luncheon parties has taken the pale of ice cream.” ---“Heavenly Hash: A Delightful New Dainty—A Glimpse of Paradise,” Chicago Daily Tribune, February 8, 1887 (p. 5)
[NOTE: A recipe for “Paradise,” also featuring similar fruits, presented in mixed layers, is also offered. The author states it was “Introduced in St. Louis by a lady who recently came over from France, where she saw it served at some very recherche houses.”]

[1906]
"Marshmallow Pudding a la Stanley

1/2 pound marshmallows
1 cupo heavy cream
1/2 teaspoon vanilla
1/4 cup candied cherries
1/2 cup English walnut meats
2 tablespoon powdered sugar
Soak cherries in rum to cover one hour, then cut in pieces. Cut walnut meats and marshmallows in small pieces. Whip cream, add sugar and vanilla, fold in remaining ingredients. Mould and chill."
---Boston Cooking-School Cook Book, Fannie Merrit Farmer, facsimile 1906 editon [Cornell University Digial Collections:Ithaca NY] (p. 432)
[NOTE: This recipe does not appear in the 1896 (first) edition of this book.]

[1909]
“Heavenly Hash (Alias Tutti Frutti).”

---“The Housemothers’ Exchange: Heavenly Hash,” Los Angeles Times, November 1909 (p. VII6)
[NOTES: (1) The original recipe is obscured by age and difficult to read. We can, however, tell it was made with alcohol in a stone crock. Ingredients included English walnuts, blanched almonds, diced bananas, oranges, pineapples, grapefruit, pears, plums, berries, Malaga grapes and sugar. (2) Like Heavenly Hash, recipes for Tutti Frutti are popular and varied.]

[1913]
"Heavenly Pudding (Delicious)

Bake an angel food cake as above and ice it. Remoe the greater part of the inner cake and fill in layer by layer with the folllowing: Whipped cream, sweetened and flavored to taste, candied cherries, candied pineapple, marshmallows, blanched almonds, more whipped cream, cherries, pineapple, nuts and marshmallows to the top of the cake. Return the layer of top icing removed and garnish with the candied fruits, marshmallows and nuts. Slice in wedge-shaped pieces and eat with a fork."
---The Economy Administration Cook Book, Susie Root Rhodes and Grace Porter Hopkins editors [W.B. Conkey Company:Hammond IN] 1913 (p. 299)

[1922]
Word Mark ELMER'S HEAVENLY HASH
Goods and Services IC 030. US 046. G & S: CANDY. FIRST USE: 19220725. FIRST USE IN COMMERCE: 19220725 Mark Drawing Code (3) DESIGN PLUS WORDS, LETTERS, AND/OR NUMBERS Design Search Code 01.03.04 - Galaxies; Sky, starry; Starry sky 01.15.06 - Advertising, skywriting; Clouds; Fog 04.01.02 - Angels; Cherubs; Cupids; Halos on animals or humans; Winged personages 26.11.21 - Rectangles that are completely or partially shaded 26.11.27 - Oblongs not used as carriers for words, letters or designs Serial Number 71699210 Filing Date December 1, 1955 Current Basis 1A Original Filing Basis 1A Date Amended to Current Register December 6, 1956 Registration Number 0643763 Registration Date April 2, 1957 Owner (REGISTRANT) ELMER CANDY CO., INC. CORPORATION LOUISIANA 540 MAGAZINE ST. NEW ORLEANS LOUISIANA (LAST LISTED OWNER) ELMER CANDY CORPORATION CORPORATION ASSIGNEE OF LOUISIANA 401 NORTH FIFTH STREET POST OFFICE BOX 788 PONCHATOULA LOUISIANA 70454 Assignment Recorded ASSIGNMENT RECORDED Attorney of Record BASSAM N IBRAHIM Prior Registrations 0157247;0596874 Description of Mark THE DRAWING IS LINED FOR RED, BLUE, AND SILVER. Type of Mark TRADEMARK Register SUPPLEMENTAL Affidavit Text SECTION 8(10-YR) 20070720. Renewal 3RD RENEWAL 20070720 Live/Dead Indicator LIVE SOURCE: US Patent & Trademark Office.

[1925]
“Heavenly Hash

1 quart whipped cream
¼ box gelatin, dissolved in a small amount of cold water as possible
¼ pound candied orange
¼ ound candied pineapple
¼ pound candied cherries
¼ pound cooked figs
¼ pound English walnuts.”
---“How to Buy Food,” (display ad), Washington Post, June 15, 1925 (p. 11)
[NOTE: No instructions are provided for mixing or serving.]

[1926]
“Combinations of fruit and nuts and whipped cream have been called ‘heavenly hash,’ which is consistent with our them about bream being a supreme product.”
---"The Tribune Cookbook: Cream Supreme,” Jane Eddington, Chicago Daily Tribune, May 30, 1026 (p. C4)

[1929]
“Heavenly Hash.
H.L.K. , Los Angeles, Cal.: One pint of whipped cream, twenty-five marshmallows, a quarter of a pound of candied cherries and a quarter of a pound of candied pineapple, mix the marshmallows, cut n small pieces with the whipped cream, fold in the candied cherries and pineapple, place in lasses, decorate with some chopped nutmeats and a few of the candied cherries cut in small pieces.”
---“Early Shopping Food Pages: Practical Recipes, Heavenly Hash,” Los Angeles Times, January 8, 1929 (p. A7)

[192?]
“Heavenly Hash

3 pounds sugar
3 pounds corn syrup
½ pound small seed raisins
1 pint water
Cook to 250 degrees F, then set kettle off the fire and add 1 pound of mixed shelled nuts and all the fine powdered cocoanut you can possibly stir in, then pour off on the slab and flatten out with rolling-pin about the thickness of caramels; let it stand until cold, then cut in pieces the size of caramels.”
---Rigby’s Reliable Candy Teacher, W.O. Rigby [Rigby Publishing Company:Topeka KS] 19th edition, undated (p. 162)

[1933]
"If you like fresh fruit as much as Joan Crawford does--especially peaches (in high season now)…if you feel for whipped cream the way tune-detective Sigmund Spaeth does (he says he could eat buckshot if it had plenty of whipped cream on it) ...then you’re set on your hot-weather meal-endings…
Heavenly Hash.
Here are two variations on the whipped ream theme that meet with praise wherever they appear—heavenly hash and snow cream. For heavenly hash, cut 4 slices of canned pineapple into small cubes. Mix these with ¼ pound marshmallows (first cut into quarters with wet shears.) Let this mixture stand in the refrigerator several hours. Then add ¼ cup sliced maraschino cherries and divide mixture into individual serving classes. Then whip 1 cup heavy cream with 3 tablespoons confectioners’ sugar. Add ¼ cups chopped walnuts and heap this mixture on top of the first mixture. Yummie!”
---“Heavenly Hash Combines Many Tasty Fruits, Whipped Cream,” Ann Barrett, Washington Post, August 22, 1933 (p. 9)

[1941]
"Heavenly Hash

1 pint ice cream
25 candided cherries (or masraschino cherries)
1 cup chopped nuts
1 1/2 cups milk
Cut marshmallows in four pieces, slice cherries, leaving a few to decorate top. Mix marshmallows with cream and let stand an hour or more, then whip stiff. Mix other ingredients. At serving time, decorate top with cherries, serve very cold. Any other fruit may be added if desired, candied pineapple or ginger or any goodies."
---Southern Cooking, Mrs. S.R. Dull [Grosset & Dunlat:New York] 1941 (p. 218)
[NOTE: Compare with Mrs. Dull's
Ambrosia recipe.]

[1960]
“Heavenly Hash

(Eight to 10 servings)
2 packages [2 ounces each] lemon, lime, or orange flavored gelatin
1 cup boiling water
1 cup cold water
2 can [1 pound, 4 ounces] crushed pineapple
1 can [4 ounces] shredded coconut
½ package [10 ½ ounces] miniature marshmallows
1 cup heavy cream, whipped
½ cup halved maraschino cherries, well drained
Dissolve gelatin in boiling water; add cold water. Chill until partially thickened. Then fold in remaining ingredients. Spoon into dessert dishes and chill thoroly before serving.”
---“Turning Out Desserts Is Pie for Small Fry,” Madeline Holland, Chicago Daily Tribune, August 19, 1960 (p. B1)

[1964]
“Glorified rice, also called heavenly hash, is an old-timer which never outgrows its popularity. Readers request this creamy rice and fruit dish to serve as salad or dessert, pointing out its versatility.
Heavenly Hash
2 cups cold cooked rice
8 ¾-oz. can pineapple tidbits, drained
¼ cup maraschino cherries drained and sliced
1 cup miniature marshmallows
Few grains salt
1 cup heavy cream, whipped
Lightly blend rice with pineapple, cherries, marshmallows and salt. Chill well. Jut before serving, fold in whipped cream. Pile into parfait or sherbet glasses. Top with additional cherries, if wished. Makes 6 servings.” ---“Rice Dish Glorified into Heavenly Hash,” Los Angeles Times, August 27, 1964 (p. D5)
[NOTE: Glorified Rice recipe includes instant rice, pineapple, miniature marshmallows, banana & heavy cream.]

[1967]
“Heavenly Hash…hails from the Southern part of the United States. It has been called a ‘gussied up’ version of Ambrosia. Arrange in layers, preferably in a glass bowl; a layer of sliced, peeled, navel oranges; a layer of thinly sliced, tart apples, peeled or not as you wish; a layer of miniature marshmallows, a layer of sliced bananas, a quarter inch of coconut. Mix 4 tablespoons honey with 1/2 cup marsala wine or orange juice. Pour this over the mixture, cover with sweetened whipped cream and garnish with walnuts and drained maraschino cherries.”
---“Fast Gourmet, Poppy Cannon, Chicago Daily Defender, September 14, 1967 (p. 24)

[1969]
“Why write a lot of ‘trash’ about Heavenly Hash…try some yourself…period…Heavenly Hash: Sealtest’s newest ice cream flavor comprised of an abundance of marshmallow and butter almond; and sprinkled liberally with chocolate chips.”
---display ad, New Pittsburg Courier, January 25, 1969 (p. 8)

[1980]
“Benjamin Peterson has tasted success, and for him it has come in may flavors; choco cherry, fudgie way, sunshine brick, heavenly hash and chocolate marshmallow bon bon…Mr. Peterson is an ice-cream chef…Since he began concocting flavors at his home in 1959, Mr. Peterson’s fervor for flavors has blossomed into a $7 million a year business. His company, Fantasy Flavors Inc., dishes out ideas to some giants of the ice-crea world, such as Beatrice Foods, Kraft and Borden…Like choco cherry, the most successful flavors are borrowed from already-popular desserts and snacks.” ---“Man of Taste Tries to Scoop the World, Melt the Competition,” Lawrence Ingrassia, Wall Street Journal, August 15, 1980 (p. 1)
[NOTE: This article does not state which year Mr. Peterson developed his Heavenly Hash, nor does it describe the ingredients.]

Related flavor: Rocky road.

Hokey pokey
Food historians generally agree the origin of the term "hokey pokey," as it relates to food, is traced to Italian street vendors who sold inexpensive goods in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. "Hokey pokey" is an English interpretation of the Italian phrase "O che poco," meaning how Oh, how little." This "little" in this phrase related to price, as these street goods (ice cream treats of all kinds in America/England, toffee flavored ice cream treats in New Zealand) were tasty and cheap. As such, they held great appeal to children and working class people.

Hokey pokey treats were generally sold in cities, amusement parks, boardwalks and and resort areas via portable vehicles. These ranged from hand-pushed carts to goat-pulled mini-wagons to bicycle-propelled carts to horsedrawn/electric trucks. Folks who make a living selling icy treats from carts were known as "hokey pokey" men.

The Oxford English Dictionary traces the term "hokey-pokey" in print, as it relates to ice cream, to 1884. They oldest mention it cites for a toffee-like sweet (as it is known in New Zealand) is 1939: Katherine Mansfield Scrapbook 3 "We always gave him the same presents...three cakes of hoky-poky." Of course, spoken words often predate their printed cousins by several years.

"Hokey-pokey
In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries hokey-pokey was a British English term for a cheap sort of ice cream sold by street vendors ("Three hokey-pokey ice-cream hand-carts, one after another, turned the corner of 'Trafalgar Road,' Arnold Bennett, Clayhanger, 1910). It presumably came from the cry with which the vendors hawked it, although what this originally was is not known (one suggestion put forward in the 1880s was Italian O che poco! 'Oh how little!'--a reference to price, presumably, rather than quantity--which is given some plausibility by the fact that many ice-cream sellers at that time were Italian). Nowadays the word is used in New Zealand for a sort of crunchy toffee bar, and also for ice cream containing little pieces of such toffee."
---An A-Z of Food & Drink, John Ayto [Oxford University Press:Oxford] 2002 (p. 160)

"[In the USA] Clearly there was a bias against the Italian vendors...The scorn that shop owners, wholesale ice cream makers, and others heaped on street vendors often had more to do with the prejudice and fear of competition...Hokeypokey was a derogatory term used to describe a type of ice cream the peddlers sold, as well as the vendors themselves...Confectioners were always contemptuous of street peddlers..."
---Of Sugar and Snow: A History of Ice Cream Making, Jeri Quinzio [University of California Press:Berkeley] 2009 (p. 111)
[NOTE: Ms. Quinzio offers an entire chapter on this topic; your local public librarian can help you get a copy of the book.]

What exactly was Hokey Pokey?
"Hokeypokeys were slices cut from bricks of ice cream...These bricks were generally about eighteen inches long, twelve inches wide, and two and a half to three inches deep. The flaovrs were arranged lenghthwise in a mold with tin dividers, which were removed once the ice cream was packed into the mold. They were usually layered with three different flavors of ice cream, and each crosswise slice would reveal all three..,.they cost one or two pennies, and...children would buy half a slice for half the price...The wrapped splices were sold to ice cream vendors. Whole bricks were sold to ice cream shops to be sliced and served, and also to householders, who had to rush home to serve them to their families before the ice cream melted."
---Of Sugar and Snow (p. 114-115)

Hokey Pokey recipes
Below please find three recipes from a professional text. These formulas explain why this product could be sold so cheaply. Packaging notes are offered in the last recipe. Most curious? There is no "original" or recommended flavors. In line with cheap production, flavorings depended upon whatever the maker had on hand (or wanted to use up?).

"Hokey Pokey
Make a custard composed of 3 eggs, 1 quart of milk, 2 tablespoonfuls of corn starch, 6 ounces of pulverized sugar and sufficient of any desirable extract to flavor it. Bring the milk to the boil; mix the corn starch, 6 ounces of pulverized sugar and eggs; beat these smmothly together with a little cold milk and add it to the boiling milk; stir all till the mixture begins to thicken, then add and stir in the flavor. Now immediately remove it form the fire, and when it becomes cool stir it totether and our it into your freezer and freeze till solid."

"Hokey Pokey
Dissolve three ounces of corn starch in one quart of milk, also soak two ounces of gelatin in the little milk or water. Palce three quarts of mlk and one pound twelve ounces of sugar in a tin or porcelain-lined pan, set on the fire until boiling, then pour it over the dissolved starch and gelatin, set on the fire again and bring to a good boil, stirring constantly with the egg beater, then add one can of condensed milk, strain, cool and freeze. Flavor at will. Another formula calls for six quarts of milk, one pound and twelve ounces of sugar and half a pound of corn starch. Dissolve the starch and one ounce of gelatin in one quart of milk. The mix all together and stir on the fire till it boils; strain, cool, freeze and flavor. Too much boiling will tend to curdle. In above formula it might be advisable to bring just to the boiling point.

"Hokey Pokey
Into a bright and perfectly clean basin put 1 pound of fine sugar and 1 dozen eggs; mix these well together; then add and stir in 2 quarts of fresh cream or milk, 1 spoonful of salt and 1 tablespoonful of extract of vanilla; set the mixture on the fire and stir constantly till it thickens, but not curdles; strain into an earthen pan, cool, and stir into it 1 ounce of gelatin, dissolved in milk or water; nour pour it into the freezer and work slowly during the whole process til it becomes well frozen; then remove the dasher and pack the cream firmly in brick molds and bury them in ice and salt untl the cream is thoroughly frozen and hard; then turn them from the molds int he usual way and keep them in the ice cave or in a can imbedded in ice, or it may be cut with a knife, dipped in warm water, into suitable squares, wrapped in wax paper and put in boxes and kep in th ice cave ready for sale."
---The Dispenser's Formulary, Compiled by The Soda Fountain Trade Magazine [Soda Fountain Publications:New York] 4th edition, 1925 (p. 171)

Who was the original Hokey Pokey man?
None of our ice cream history books mention his name. We stumbled across this tiny obituary published in the New York Times, circa 1907. We glean, though cannot confirm via US Patents, that Mr. Dunham created the commercial process. It seems unlikely the first street vendor peddling lowly hokey pokey to poor children from a rickety cart would be worth noting by the New York Times.

"Samuel F. Dunham Dead. He was the Inventor of the 'Hokey Pokey' or Ice Cream Brick. Burlington, N.J....Samuel F. Dunham, an aged citizen and originator of the now widely 'hokey pokey,' or ice cream brick, died at his home here to-day of heart disease. Dunham conceived the idea of selling ice cream in cake form for a penny and laid by in a snug fortune before imitators broke into his trade. He lived, however, to see the business he invented become a great industry and took just pride in being styled 'the original hokey pokey man.'"
---New York Times, October 8, 1907 (p. 11)

Related treats? Ice cream novelties & Neapolitan ice cream.


Ice cream cake
The idea of ice cream and cake evolved from Renaissance-era desserts composed of cream and biscuits. These were called trifles. These fancy desserts were enjoyed by middle class and wealthy people. Food historians tell us ice cream, as we know it, was "invented" in the 17th century and proliferated in the 18th. These early recipes were generally based on the same creams used for trifles. The difference? Freezing technique. Victorians prided themselves on fancy ice cream "bombes" (ice cream molded into special shapes). A survey of old cookbooks confirms biscuits (Savoy, sponge) were sometimes used to line the mold that held the ice cream. Voila! Ice cream cake.16th century English trifle, although not frozen, presents the same basic concept of laying sweet foods of different textures and tastes. About
English trifle.

In the 1800s ice cream served at fancy parties was often molded into festive shapes. This was a borrowed tradition from molded puddings and custards. By the Victorian era, ice cream was often pressed into molds which produced elegant, elaborate frozen desserts. Some of the ice cream creations (bombes, etc.) had fillings, usually fruit. Many of these combined biscuits and other cakes. In 19th century American cookbooks, "ice cream cake" had several definitions.

Compare these recipes from the 1870s:

[1871]
"Ice Cream Cakes

Half a cupful each of milk and bitter, one cupful of sugar, two cupsful of flour, three eggs beaten, whites and yolks separately, one teaspoonful of cream of tartar, half a teaspoonful of soda, and flavor with vanilla."
---Mrs. Porter's New Southern Cookery Book, Mrs. M.E. Porter, reprint of 1871 editon [Promontory Press:New York] 1974 (p. 259)

[1877]
Ice Cream Cakes
, Buckeye Cookery Book

ABOUT ICE CREAM MOLDS
"Most ice cream molds are somewhat soft, gray, heavy metal called "pewter," although it's not the same proportionate mix of metals used in the eighteenth century for plates and hollowware...The molds are mostly two-part, hinged and heavy, or relatively thick, so that they would hold the cold temperature longer while unmolding the ice cream...Some molds achieved their full effect only when accompanied by "decorations" of composition, printed paper or wire--such as leaves, stems, hats, golf clubs, flags, sails and tablewares. Krauss and also Jo-Lo offer these in their 1930s catalogs..."
---300 Years of Kitchen Collectibles, Linda Campbell Franklin, 4th edition (p. 219-231) [NOTE: This book offers a wealth of information on the history of ice cream molds, including pictures]


Ice cream sandwiches
The history of the ice cream sandwich can be traced to Renaissance-era
English trifles and 18th century Charlottes, rich compositions of sweet cream and biscuits. Advances in freezer technology made ice cream available to many Europeans and Americans by the 18th century. Old favorites were transformed. Victorian-era cooks/chefs crafted fancy ice cream (molded ice creams with or without cake). They also specialized in cream-filled Victorias sandwich cakes. Freeze a sandwich cake and what do you get?

Ice cream sandwiches, as we Americans know them today, fall into the category of "novelties." According to the food historians, ice cream novelties were introduced in the late 19th/early 20th century. These were the treats of the "common folk." Cheaply priced items hawked by street vendors in cities, resorts & fairs. The origin of several popular period ice cream treats (ice cream cones, ice cream sundaes, banana splits, popsicles) are readily claimed by several people and places. Not so, the ice cream sandwich. The earliest print references we find for the product name is 1900. Certainly, the product could have existed earlier under different names.

[1900]
"The ice cream sandwich man, who sells quarter-inch layers of alleged ice cream between tiny slabs of water wafers, did a big business during the hot spell. His field of operation was within the disctrict inhabited by the Russians, and his pushcart was elaborately decorated with signs in Hebrew characters. He made the sandwiches quickly in a tin mold, and was kept so busy that he could not make change, but insisted on feceiveing the actual price for each ice cream sandwich--1 cent."
---"Hot Water Enterrpise: Devices of Street Mechants and Others to Attrace Patronage," from The New York Tribune, The Washington Post, July 25, 1900 (p. 4)

"The ice cream sandwich is a new hot weather luxury which is rapidly coming into downtown favor. An enterprising hokey-pokey vendor, whose daily station in in John street, is the projector, and his push cart is constantly surrounded by a jostling, sweltering crowd of patrons, representing all social condiitons, form banker down to bootblack and newsboy. The inventor takes a graham wafer, deftly plasters it with ice cream, claps another wafer on top, and there is your ice cream sandwich. The cost is trifling, ranging from 1 to 3 cents, according to the size and thickness of the thing. But the mank is simply coining money, where he eked out a meager revenue before. he has simpley tickled the public's facny for something new."
---"The Ice Cream Sandwich," from the New York Telegraph, The Washignton Post, August 19, 1900 (p. 15)

"There are ham sandwiches and salmon sandwiches and cheese sandwiches and several other kinds of sandwiches--a downtown restaurant advertises 30 varieties--by the latest is the ice cream sandwich. As a new fad the ice cream sandwich might have made thousands of dollars for its inventor had the novelty been launched by a well-known caterer. But, strangely enough the ice cream sandwich made its advent in an humbler Bowery pushcart and is sold for a penny, says the New York make and Express. The idea is worth of a better field, for the ice cream sandwich is not only a distinct novelty, but has merits of its own. It will be appreciated by the child who on eating ice cream for the first time wanted to have it warmed. While losing nothing of its flavor, the thin wafers which go to make up the sandwich help to modify the coolness of the ice cream, so that it can be eaten more readily. The ice cream sandwich as made on the Bowery is constructed in this wise: A thin milk biscuit is placed in a tin mold just large enough to receive it. Then the mold is filled with ice cream from a freezer and another wafer is placed on top. There is an arrangement for forcing the sandwich out of the mold when complete, and the whole process takes only a few seconds. The ice cream sandwich man is the envy of all other pushcart restaurateurs on the Bowery, as he has all the patrons he can attend to and the car is always surrounded by curious customers."
---"Ice Cream Sandwich," Logansport Daily Reporter, [Indiana] September 1, 1900 (p. 3)

Recent developments
The Chipwich was invented in 1977 by Richard E. Lamotta. His trademark is registered with the U.S. Patent & Trademark Office (registration #73159560).

Freeze-dried Space Bar ice cream sandwiches were invented in 1989 by U.S. scientists connected with the Smithsonian Institution. Trademark registration number is 1576642.

American marketers are currently capitalizing on brand recognition/nostalgia when it comes to developing new ice cream sandwich products. Our local supermarket sells ice cream sandwiches featuring Nestle Toll House cookies and Oreos. Sandwich minis (we buy small things because we can eat more of them?) are also popular. You can identify new products and consumer trends with magazine/trade journal/newspaper articles (your librarian can help you access) and company Web sites (product lists and press releases).


Italian ice, granita, sorbet & sherbet
Italian water ice (also known as granita and sorbetto) has a long and ancient history:

"The Greeks and Romans employed lumps of Etna's snow to chill their wine; the Arabs used it instead to chill their sarbat. The Italian word sorbetto and the English sherbert come from these sweet fruit syrups that the Arabs once drank diluted with ice water. The passage from sarbat and water, chilled in a container of ice, to granita was only a question of time, perhaps the chance invention of a housewife distracted by a passing vendor or a crying child. Sicilians always claim an Arabic origin for their ices, although in her book on Middle Eastern food Claudia Roden cites neither an Arabic name nor a Levantine history for the granita recipes she gives. In any case, whether it was in Damascus or in Catania that the sarbat stayed too long on ice, Sicily is the home of ices as far as the Western world is concerned, and Araby their inspiration. The flavors most common to the western part of Sicily are those that by now are most famous elsewhere in Italy and in America as well, lemon and coffee..."
---Pomp and Sustenance:Twenty-Five Centuries of Sicilian Food, Mary Taylor Simeti [Ecco Press:Hopewell NJ] 1989 (p. 283-4)

"For thousands of years people saved ice to satisfy their desire for cool drinks. The earliest icehouses existed in Mesopotamia, beside the Euphrates River, about 4,000 years ago. The rich used the ice in these puts to cool their wines. Alexander the Great dug pits and filled them with snow so that his army could have cool wine in the summer. Roman emperors had ice brought from the mountains, and the kings of Egypt had snow shipped to them from Lebanon...Easterners, especially in the Turkish Empire, frequently consumed iced fruit drinks, and the people of Greece sold snow in the markets of Athens from as early as the fifth century BC. Today's sherberts and wine coolers likely originated with the wine-flavored ices consumed by early peoples, and today's snow cones likely originated with the ices made long ago form real snow mixed with honey and fruit."
---Nectar and Ambrosia:An Encyclopedia of Food in World Mythology, Tamra Andrews [ABC-CLIO:Santa Barbara] 2000 (p. 121)

"Water ices seem to have come into being, in Europe, at about the same time in the second half of the 17th century as ice cream. The same technique is used for both products...It has been suggested that ices (whether water ices or ice cream) were made much earlier in China. This seems not impossible, and would be difficult to disprove. However, the further idea that they were introduced to Europe by Marco Polo, returning to Venice from China in the 13th century, is unsupported and is best counted as a piece of culinary mythology...As for precedence in Europe...no one can say whether true water ices were first prepared in Italy of France or Spain. Whatever the point of origin, their use spread quickly between the more sophisticated cities of Europe, although there is no sure evidence of then they first crossed the Channel to London...Water ices may be served as a stand-alone refreshment, as a dessert, or as a means of refreshing the palate about halfway through a meal of many courses...Italian sorbetto, and Spanish sorbete, belong to the sherbet group. Antoher Italian term, granita, refers to a water ice with a more granular texture than the standard kind."
---Oxford Companion to Food, Alan Davidson [Oxford University Press:Oxford] 1999 (p. 838)

Sherbet & sorbet
Essentially, sherbet and sorbet are similar products. Recipes evolved through the years. In England, the word sherbet also came to denote a powdered fizzy candy. In the USA the term 'sherbet' is commonly used for 'sorbet', except for in fine restaurants. In the mid-19th century, formal dinner menus offered
sorbet in the middle of the meal. About the words:

"English acquired the word sherbet via Turkish or Persian serbet from Arabic shabah, 'beverage, drink', and at first (in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries) it was used, logically enough, for a Middle Eastern drink--specifically a cooling drink made from water, fruit juice, and sugar or honey, and often chilled with snow. Then in the nineteenth century and effervescent white powder was devised, composed of bicarbonate of sida, tartaric acid, sugar, and various flavourings, with which to make fizzy drinks that supposedly resembled the original Oriental sherbet. Children quickly discovered that it was if anything nicer to eat the sherbet powder than to make drinks with it, and so were born the sherbet dabs and sherbet fountains of yesteryear (the former was a lollipop that could be dipped into a bag of sherbet, the latter a cylindrical packet of sherbet with ta liquorice straw for sucking it up). Sherbet is closely related etymolocially to shrub (the dirnk), sorbet (in American English sherbet is often used for 'sorbet'), and syrup."
---An A to Z of Food and Drink, John Ayto [Oxford University Press:Oxcford] 2002 (p. 309-310)

"Italians were the undisputed master in developing methods of chilling a freezing drinks...The creation of sorbet resulted from experiments in chilling drinks, and it too became a matter of myth. Supposedly, sorbet was also brought to France by Catherine de'Medici...There is no documentary evidence to support this hypothesis, however and we cannot prove that the art of sorbet making was already practiced in Italy in the middle of the sixteenth century...Latini's... Treatise on Various Kinds of Sorbets, or Water Ices...composed between 1692 and 1694...contains the first written recipes on how to mix sugar, salt, snow, and lemon juice, strawberrries, sour cherries, and other fruit, as well as chocolate, cinnamon water, and different flavorings. There is also a description of a "milk sorbet that is first cooked," which we could regard as the birth certificate of ice cream. De'sorbetti, the first book entirely dedicated to the art of making frozen confections, was published in Naples in 1775. Its author, Filippo Baldini, discusses different types of sorbets...A separate chapter deals with "milky sorbets," meaning ice creams, whose medical properties are vigorouly proclaimed."
---Italian Cuisine: A Cultural History, Alberto Capatti & Massimo Montanari [Columbia University Press:New York] 1999 (p. 110-1)

"A sherbet, basically and historically, is a cold, sweetened, non-alcoholic drink, usually based on a fruit juice. The earliest recorded word for it seems to be sharab, the classical Arab term from a sweetened drink. However, in the late Middle Ages this word developed its current Arabic sense...The later Arabic word sharbat also entered European languages. In the late 16th century it appeared in Italian as the name of a beverage drunk in Turkey. Then the beverage itself entered Italian cuisine, under the name sorbetto. It took this form because the Italians assimiliated it into their verb sorbire, meaning to sip. The Italian sorbetto gave rise to the French sorbet, the Spanish sorbete, etc. All these words begin with 's' not with 'sh'. English seems to be the only language which took the word sherbet directly from the Turkish, complete with its 'h'...According to the dictionary compiled by Fortiere in the late 17th century, a sorbet in France at that time was also a drink, of sugar and lemon pulp. Diderot's great encyclopedia of the 1750s suggests that it remained so during the 18th century. During the 19th century...a sorbet could be either a drink or a sort of ice more suitable for drinking than eating, and in the latter case had an alcoholic content."
---Oxford Companion to Food, Alan Davidson, 2nd edition edited by Tom Jaine [Oxford University Press:Oxford] 2006 (p. 717)

"Sorbet. A type of water ice that is softer and more granular than ice cream as it does not contain any fat or egg yolk. The basic ingredient of a sorbet is fruit juice or puree, wine, spirit or liqueur, or an infusion (tea or mint). A sugar syrup, sometimes with additional glucose or one or two invert sugars is added. The mixture should not be beaten during freezing. When it has set, some Italian meringue can be added to give it volume. Historically, sorbets were the first iced desserts (ice creams did not appear until ith 18th century). The Chinese introduced them to the Persians and Arabs who introduced them to the Italians. The word sorbet is a gallicazation of the Italian sorbetto, derived from Turkish chobet and Arab charah, which simply meant drink. Sorbets were originally made of fruit, honey, aromatic substances and snow. Today, the sorbet is served as a dessert or as a refreshment between courses; at large formal dinners in France, sorbets with an alcoholic base are served between the main courses, taking the place of the liqueur...formerly served in the middle of the meal..."
---Larousse Gastronomique, completely revised and updated [Clarkson Potter:New York] 2001(p. 1108)

Sorbet course
Sorbets (sherbets, ices, iced punches) appear as mid-meal courses in grand European-style dinner menus from mid-19th century forwards. Primary souces specify course placement, which varies according complexity of bill of fare. Generally, the sorbet course comes after the roasts and before the game OR after the entree and before the roast.

Why serve chilled ices in the middle of the meal? Most primary sources do not elucidate. Presumably? This was common knowledge among the dining elite. Our survey of historic sources returned three possible reasons:
1. To cleanse the palate
...Served between the heaviest meat/entree courses, chilled ices would effectively wash away fatty flavors.
2. To prepare the stomach for additional foodstuffs
...Served as an intermezzo, chilled ices would offer a much needed break from a formally long dining experience.
3. As a modern replacement for the old custom of serving mid-meal liqueur/cordials.
...Plausible, since the original purpose of these alcoholic beverages was medicinal.

Sorbets served in this course are generally soft or grainy, providing a texture and flavor break from chewing spiced meats. Some sorbets incorporate liqueurs. The course is served in fancy individual glasses for each diner.

Mrs. A.B. Marshall makes this compelling argument for palate cleansers, circa 1880s.
"The formal Victorian dinner was long, lasting two or even three hours, and consisted of many courses. Ices could appear in two or even three of them. The meal was divided into two parts. A soup course came first usually the diner had the choice of a thick soup or a clear consomme. Three courses followed: fish, entree, and releve or remove. The latter was a large roast garnished with vegetables. The second part of the meal opened with a sorbet or a punch--a water ice flavored with rum or other spirits--thus contrasting with the hot liquid at the beginning of the meal. The the diner went on to successive courses of more roast meat, vegetables, and sweets. In her Cookery Book Mrs. Marshall describes the character of a sorbet:

'Under the term sorbet are now included those ices which are served after the removes. They should be of a light semi-frozen nature, having only just sufficient consistency to hold together when piled up. This degree of solidity is a natural consequence of their composition, for the sugar and spirit among their ingredients, when properly prepared, will prevent them, under any circumstances, becoming as solid as cream and water ices. They are generally prepared by first making an ordinary lemon-water ice, and adding to this some spirit, liqueur, or syrup for flavouring, and fruit for the garnish and are named accordingly rum sorbet, cherry sorbet, and so on. They are always served in cups or glasses, one for each guest, and many very pretty designs are specially made for this purpose.'
"The coldness an granular texture of the sorbet, the acidity of the lemon juice, and the slight bitterness from the infused lemon peel provide a refreshing contrast to the heat and the unctuous textures of preceding courses. Just how elaborate the 'pretty designs' could be is illustrated by Ranhofer's 'Stanley Punch.'...As the Victorian meal drew to a close, the entremet course was served. Nowadays this is understood to mean the dessert, but in Mrs. Marshall's day it included vegetables as well, and even the savoury seems originally to have belonged to it...Mrs. Marshall's enthusiasm warms when she describes the sweets:
...'The aim of a properly constructed sweet is to convey to the palate the greatest possible amount of pleasure and taste, whilst it is in no way either suggestive of nourishment or solidity...Of late ices and iced dishes of various kinds have increased so much in popular favor as to form a special, and decidedly important item, at every well arranged dinner.'"
---Victorian Ices & Ice Cream, facsimile with notes of The Book of Ices, A.B. Marshall, 1885, with introduction and annotations by Barbara Ketcham Wheaton [Charles Scribner's Sons:New York] 1976 (p. x-xiv)

"Sorbets, etc. The Italian word sorbetto, meaning sherbet, shows the origin of these dishes. Their general character is that of a water ice mixed or flavoured with wine or spirits. They are served before the roast in glasses or fancy cups and generally just enough frozen to be piled up in the glass..."
---ibid (p. 30)

Ancient tradition rediscovered?
We are wondering if this practice reflects Galen's humoral theories of the cooling of the stomach. Cooling liquids (limonades &c.) may have had this effect. Possible collolary: Italian menus place salad in the middle of the dinner to "lighten the load" of the diner's stomach. Both practices would redirect the palate and prepare the stomache to accept additional foodstuffs.

Evidence suggests the sorbet course may have been borrowed from Middle Eastern traditions.
"The water ices of the Turks and Arabs were soft and semi-liquid, rather like slushy Italian granita. They were often eaten between courses, as soup is in China, to refresh and clear the palate."
---Much Depends on Dinner, Margaret Visser [Grove Press:New York] 1986 (p. 297)
[NOTE: Ms. Visser does not date the genesis of this custom nor does she explain when the practice became common in Europe.]

"Our word for 'paradise' comes from the Persian word for garden...Only kings had couches; others sat on bright-woven carpets spread over the ground . Food was served on trays resting on stands of polished wood and mosaics about eighteen inches high. Silverware was not needed; the flat bread called nan served as plate, spoon, fork and sustenance all in one...The soft music of flute and tambourine added to the pleasure of the meal. Between courses servants brought bowls of rosewater for washing fingers...Over low braziers kebabs were broiled to succulence, served with a spiced sauce of creamy yogurt or mast, as the Persians called the buttermilk clabber. Huge bowls of pilaf or pilau...were intricately seasoned with nuts, buts of chicken or lamb, spices, herbs, and fruit. A sweet chilled fruit drink called sherbet might come next, or a salad of water cress and lettuce."
---"Cookery Contests of Ancient Persia," Cooks, Gluttons & Gourmets: A History of Cookery, Betty Wason [Doubleday & Company:Garden City NY] 1962 (p. 53-54)

A survey of sorbet course placement & offerings

[1760s: England]
"Among the wealthier classes of this coutnry a more luxurious form of living came again with the elegancies and artificialities of the eighteenth century. Steele exhorts his readers to reconcile themselves to beef and mutton...He views with disgust the sumptuous table at which fashionable diners 'cool their mouths with lumps of ice, which they had just before been burning with salt and pepper'..."
---Good Cheer: The Romance of Food and Feasting, Frederick W. Hackwood [T. Fisher Unwin:London] 1911 (p. 180)
[NOTE: Mr. Hackwood does not provide citation to the Steele quote.]

[1860s: Paris]
"Here is a menu of a historic dinner. This dinner, known as the dinner of the 'Three Emperors', was served on June 7th, 1867, ad the Cafe Anglais, which no longer exists. Among the illustrious guests who attended this dinner were Alexander II, Czar of all the Russias, the Czarevich (the future Alexander III) and the King of Prussia who afterwards became the Emperor William 1. This dinner, it is said, coast 400 francs a head.
Menu
Soups: Imperatrice--Fontanges
Intermediate course: Souffle a la Reine, Fillet of sole a la venitienne, Collops of turbot au gratin, Saddle of mutton with puree bretonne
Entrees: Chickens a la portugaise, Hot quail pate, Lobster a la parisienne, Champagne Sherbets.
Rots: Duckling a la rouennaise, Canapes of bunting
Final Course: Aubergines a l'espagnole, Asparagus, Cassolettes princess, Iced bombe, fruit, wines..."
---Larousse Gastronomique, Prosper Montagne [Crown Publishers:New York] 1961 (p. 619)[restaurant menu]

[1870s: England]
Kettner's Book of the Table [1877] states: "Sorbet of Rum. --A lemon ice with a teaspoonful or two of rum to the glass. Served at dinner--sometimes before, sometimes after the roast." (p. 431). Cassell's Dictionary of Cookery [1875] states: "Sorbet of Kirschenwasser.--Make some ice as follows:--Mix thorougly a pint of syrup at 35 degrees, and a pint of 'chablis. Strain the mixture through a silk into a freezing pan and freeze in the usual way. When frozen, flavor it with three table-spoonfuls of kirschenwasser. Put the sorbet into glasses, and serve it at dinner with the roasts." (p. 897-898).
[NOTE: the following recipe, Sorbet of Rum, carries the same serving instructions.]

[1870s: USA]
"7th Course: Roman Punch."
---
Practical Cooking and Dinner Giving, Mary Henderson [1877]
[NOTES: (1) "Roman Punch. Make or purchase lemon ice. Just before serving, put enough for one person at table into a saucer or punch-glass, and pour over two table-spoonfuls of the milk punch,made as in the last receipt. A course of Roman punch is often served at dinner parties just after the roast. There is no better, cheaper, or easier way of preparing it than this."---Practical Cooking and Dinner Giving, Mary Henderson [1877] (p. 340) (2) Eliza Leslie offers recipes for Roman Punch in the 1840s but does not comment on meal placement or purpose.]

[1880s: USA]
"There are now so many provocatives of appetite that it would seem as if we were all, after the manner of Heliogabalus, determined to eat and die. The best of these is the Roman punch, which, coming after the heavy roasts, prepares the palate and stomach for the canvas- back ducks or other game."
Manners and Social Usages/Mary Elizabeth Wilson Sherwood, 1887 edition

[1890s: England]
"[Mrs. A. B.] Marshall's suggested dinner menus took full advantage of the latest technology available to a middle-class family in 1895, and nowhere was the technology more noticeable than in the elaborate, molded ices that graced the dinner table...The Punch course, designed as a palate cleanser between the Releve and Rot courses, could now be a Sorbet course. Certainly, Marshall noted, a beautifully presented semifrozen sorbet served in a bowl that itself was made of ice is much more impressive than a glass of cold punch."
---Food and Cooking in Victorian England: A History, Andrea Broomfield [Praeger:Westport CT] 2007 (p. 139-140)

[1890s: USA]
"Seventh Course. Frozen punch, when served, comes between the meat and game courses. It is not passed, but a glassful standing on a plate, with a coffee spoon beside it, is placed before each person. If preferred, a cheese omelet or souffle may be used instead of punch for this course."
---The Century Cook Book, Mary Arnold [The Century Co.:New York] 1898 (p. 24-26) [12 courses total]

[1900s: France]
"The Sorbets and those other prepraraions which are derived form them are very light ices, barely frozen, and wich are served after the Entree at a formal dinner. Their role is that of refresing the palate and to prepare the stomach for the roast course which will be served following the Sorbet. In fact a Sorbet is both an aperitif and an aid to digestion."
---The Complete Guide to the Art of Modern Cookery, A. Escoffier, original Englished version 1907, translated by H.L. Cracknell and R.J. Kaufmann [John Wilen & Sons:New York] 1979 (p. 575)

[1900s: USA]
"The Seventh Course: Sorbet-Punch which is not essential, but nevertheless a pleasing half-way house among the various stages of the dinner, is sherbet, for which cooling refreshment a sherbet set is desirable."
---Consolidated Library of Modern Cooking and Household Recipes, Christine Terhune Herrick, editor in chief, Volune 1 [R.J. Bodmer Company:New York] 1905 (unpaged frontmatter)
[NOTE: This dinner is composed of 10 courses. The Sixth Course is Roast, the Eighth Course is Game.] "Following the roast a sherbet is served. This, however, is not assigned a special heading on printed or written menus, as it is simply a light spur to the appetite consisting of a dainty frozen punch served in small glasses." ---ibid (p. 13)

[1920s: USA]
"Punch or sherbet is served between the last entree andther roast. Either one should be placed on the bill of fare without a separate heading, merely reading: Sherbet or punch, a la ---. The difference between sherbet and punch is that the former is a water ice into which some liquor is mixed, while punch is an ice either of water or cream mingled with a quarter as much Italian meringue and liquors...Punches and sherbets are served either in medium glasses, the size usually used for Bordeaux wtihout any foot, but provided with a handle, or else in fancy cups, either of gum paste or of water tinted to various colors, or in many kinds made of cardboard of a basket or other shape, or in the peels of fresh fruits."
---The Epicurean: A Complete Treatise of Analytical and Practical Studies on The Culinary Art, Charles Ranhofer facsimile 1920 edition [Martino Publishing:Mansfield Center CT] 2011 (p. 1000)

"If both roast and game are served, a frozen punch should be served as a separate course, after the roast, and the salad shoudl be served with the game, instead of forming a course by itself. Dessert would follow. With one meat course only, sorbets and frozen punches are not served except at large dinners, and banquets, and at hotels."
---Table Service, Lucy G. Allen [Little, Brown, and Company:Boston] 1927 (p. 84)

[1960s: France]
"Sherbets. Sorbets.--These ices, which in France are usually served between the main courses, take the place nowadays of the liqueurs which formerly used to be served in the middle of the meal and which in some parts of France were called coup-du-milieu, and in others trou-normande."
---Larousse Gastonomique, Prosper Montagne [Crown Publishers:New York] 1961 (p. 877)

[2000s: USA]
"7. Sorbet (ice): Sorbets...are served between main courses to cleanse the palate and to prepare the stomach for the next course. The sorbet course is used as an intermezzo ("intermission")."
---Remarkable Service, Culinary Institute of America, 2nd edition [John Wiley & Sons:New York] 2009 (p. 32-34) [17 courses total]

Related foods? Italian ice & granita. Interesting recipe? Lalla Rookh. Related beverage? shrub.


Rocky road
Culinary evidence confirms combinations of chocolate ice cream, marshmallows and nuts were enjoyed long before 1929. These were known by a variety of creative names. Recipes descend from the classic early 20th century
Ice Box cake, which probably explains the popuality of this item as both frozen confection and no-bake bars. The earliest references we find for "Rocky Road" date to the 1920s.

"Rocky Road. A confection of milk or dark chocolate mixed with marshmallows and nuts. Its name derives from the texture of the finished product. Culinary historian Jean Anderson has found a recipe for the candy dating to Young American's Cookbook (1938). It is also the familiar name of a similarly flavored ice cream."
---Encyclopedia of American Food and Drink, John F. Mariani [Lebhar-Friedman:New York] 1999 (p. 275)

[192?]
"Rocky Road.

Place a disher of chocolate ice cream in a sundae cup and over it pour a ladle of honey cream whip. Mix a few broken almond macaroons in with the whip and scatter whole pecans and walnuts lightly over sides. Top with a cherry."
---Rigby's Reliable Candy Teacher, W.O. Rigby, 19th edition [192?] (p. 238)

[1937]
"Frozen Rocky Road

Add six tablespoons and twelve tablespoons ground chocolate to two cups milk and beat together in top of double boiler until all are well blended. beat thoroughly and cool. Add twenty-four marshmallows chilled and quartered, a few grains salt, one cup chopped walnuts, one teaspoon vanilla and one cup whipping cream. Pour into freezing tray and allow to remain until firm."
---"A Leaf From Your Shopper's Notebook," Lona Gilbert, Los Angeles Times, March 30, 1937 (p. A6)

[1938]
"Rocky Road Candy

12 marshmallows, cut in quarters, 1/2 cup broken nut meats, 1 pound sweet or dipping chocolate, melted. Arrange marshmallows and nuts in greased pan; cover with melted chocolate. When cool, cut in squares."
---Dislpay ad, Los Angeles Times, November 28, 1938 (p. 20)

[1938]
"Rocky Road Candy.

12 marshmallows, cut in quarters
1/2 cup broken nut meats
1/2 pound sweet or dipping chocolate, melted.
Cut marshmallows, wetting scissors between cuts. Scatter, with nut meats, on bottom of buttered pan. Melt chocolate over hot water, then pour over nuts and marshmallows. When cooked, cut in squares. Makes about 16 pieces."
---Young America's Cook Book: A Cook Book for Boys and Girls Who Like Good Food, Compiled by The Home Institute of the New York Herald Tribune [Charles Scribner's Sons:New York] copyright 1938 (p. 214)
[NOTE: This is the correct name of the cookbook referenced by Mariani.]

Compare with: Heavenly Hash.


Malted milk
Did you know that malteds,
milk shakes and other soda fountain treats were originally concocted as health foods? The history of malted milk and milk shakes are interesting and interconnected:

"Malted milk...Originally created in 1887 as an easily digested infant's food made from an extract of wheat and malted barley combined with milk and made into a powder called "diastoid" by James and William Horlick of Racine, Wisconsin, this item, under the name "Horlick's Malted Milk," was featured by the Walgreen drugstore chain as part of a chocolate milk shake, which itself became known as a "malted" and became one of the most popular soda-fountain drinks."
---The Encyclopedia of American Food and Drink, John F. Mariani [Lebhar-Friedman:New York] 1999 (p. 196-197)

"Malted milk was a trade name registered by William Horlick of Racine, Wisconsin. Horlick supposedly coined the name "malted milk," but his formula resembled one already being marketed in England. He promoted his mixture of dried milk extracts of malted barley and wheat as a food supplement for infants and invalids. As such, it was widely availalbe in drugstores, both as as powder and as a tablet. Enterprising druggists soon discovered that they could use powdered malted milk to make a cheap syurp to flavor drinks. When ice cream was added, a malted was both tasty and filling, since the dried milk and the ice cream had a high fat content. Druggists promoted the drink as a complete meal and charged a premium price. Horlick's malted milk was the first in the United States but it was widely imitated by other manufacturers, including Carnation and Borden's. Although Horlick protested that thes other companies were infringing on his rights, his competitors cited legal precedents in their favor. Horlick persuaded some state associations of drugstore owners to boycott his rivals' products, and there was much animosity among the malted milk manufacturers....Malted milk sold steadily for decades than then became a fad in the 1920s, largely due to an electric blender invented by Fred Osius. Osius, who lived in Racine, prefected a mixer that blended a smooth, thick drink. At first, he tried to interest Horlick in his invention, but the malted milk magnate ridiculed him. In 1910, Osseus made a trip to New York City, tring to find investors but was unsuccessful and ran out of money. In order to pay his way back to Wisconsin, he persuaded the owner of the Caswell-Massey store on Broadway to take a blender as collateral for a loan. This blender was a big hit with Caswell-Massey's customers, who were fascinated by the way it worked. The sales manager for a leading manufacturer of milk products saw this blender at Caswell-Massey and immediately grasped its potentia. Subsequently, his company arranged to buy blenders from Ossius and give them to soda fountain operators who bought 100 pounds of its malted milk. Bulk malted milk sales increased from less than one million pounds annually in 1910 to more than 35 million in 1926. The drinks were so popular that several chains of malted milk shops sprang up on the West Coast in the 1920s."
---Sundae Best: A History of Soda Fountains, Anne Cooper Funderburg [Bowling Greeen State University Popular Press:Bowling Green, OH] 2002 (p. 50-51)
[Fred Osius' patent #D104,289, granted April 27, 1937, here. NOTE: Osius is not credited for inventing the first blender. That honor belongs to Stephen J. Poplawski in 1922. About blenders.]

"1883...English-American inventor William Horlick, 37, produces the first "malted milk" (he will coin the phrase in 1886) at Racine, Wis. He has combined dried whole milk with extract of wheat and malted barley in powder and tablet form, and his "diastoid" is the first dried whole milk that will keep...."
---The Food Chronology, James L.Trager [Henry Holt:New York] 1995 (p. 317)

Milk shakes
Milk shakes, like
malted milk, were originally promoted as health foods.

"Milk shake...When the term first appeared in print in 1885, milk shakes may have contained whiskey of some kind, but by the turn of the century they were considered wholesome drinks made with chocolate, strawberry, or vanilla syrups. In different parts of the country they went by different names...A "malted" is made with malted milk powder-invented in 1887 by William Horlick of Racine Wisconsin, and made from dried milk, malted barley, and wheat flour-promoted at first as a drink for invalids and children. By the 1930s a malt shop' was a soda fountain not attached to a pharmacy."
---The Encyclopedia of American Food and Drink, John F. Mariani [Lebhar-Friedman:New York] 1999 (p. 206)

"Milk shake also appeared in the late 1880s, but the term then usually meant a sturdy, healthful egg nog type of drink, with eggs, whiskey, etc., served as a tonic as well as a treat. Since malted milk was also considered a tonic, the combined malted milk shake was a logical step and in the early 1900s people were asking for the new treat, often with ice cream, and before 1910 were using the shorter terms shake and malt (the longer word malted being somewhat more common in the Eastern states). Malt shop was a term of the late 1930s, usually being a typical soda fountain of the period, especially one used by students as a meeting place or hangout."
---Listening to America, Stuart Berg Flexner [Simon & Schuster:New York] 1982 (p. 178)

"It is not known exactly when milkshakes were introduced at soda fountains, but they were popular by the mid-1880s. Tufts patented his Lightning Shaker for mixing milkshakes in 1884, and trade publications printed numerous ads for shakers in the 1890s. These handcrafted machines agitated glasses filled with liquid, producing smooth, thick drinks...Tufts' 1890 trade catalog said that the milkshake "has sprung into great popularity in the South in a surprisingly short time...It can be made of any flaor, but vanilla and chocolate are the most desirable flavors. This catalog included a milkshake recipe, which instructed the dispenser to fill a tumbler half-full of shaved ice, add 1.5 ounces of syrup, finish filling the glass with milk, and shake well. For a little extra punch, the recipe said to add port wine. In order to make a richer shake, upscale fountains used a combination of heavy cream or ice cream and milk. While most milkshakes sold for a nickel, these creamier shakes cost 10 to 15 cents. Saxe's New Guide, or Hints to Soda Dispensers warned against giving the customer a wide choice of milkshake flavors because it slowed down service while the dispenser waited for the patron to decide."
---Sundae Best: A History of Soda Fountains, Anne Cooper Funderburg [Bowling Greeen State University Popular Press:Bowling Green, OH] 2002 (p. 51-52)

If you need additional information on the history of soda fountains ask your librarian to help you find this book:
The Great American Ice Cream Book, Paul Dickson
& check out: The Drug Store Museum.

Neapolitan ice cream
Although Italian ice and granita trace their roots to ancient times, Neapolitan ice cream seems to be a 19th century phenomenon. Recipes for the fancy molds (bombes) or bricks of vanilla, chocolate and strawberry (sometimes pistachio) were often included in 19th century European and American cook books. This was a function of technology (refrigeration advancements) and collective gastronomy (preference for complicated presentations). Why "Neapolitan?" The peoples of Napoli are credited for introducing their famous ice creams to the world in the 19th century. At that time, pressed blocks composed of special flavors were trendy. The best ones were made with "Neapolitan-style" ice creams.

A survey of historic cookbooks confirms the term "Neapolitan," as it relates to ice cream, denotes both a recipe (for ice cream) and method (combining several flavors in a mold). It also reveals there is no "official" triumvirate of flavors. Most often cited are vanilla, chocolate, strawberry and pistachio. It is not unusual to include a sherbet or fruit-flavored ice as well.

This is what the food historians have to say:
"Neapolitan slice. A slice of ice-cream cake made with mousse mixture and ordinary ice cream, presented in a small pleated paper case. Neapolitan ice cream consists of three layers, each of a different color and flavor (chocolate, strawberry, and vanilla), moulded into a block and cut into slices. Neapolitan ice-cream makers were famous in Paris at the beginning of the 19th century, especially Tortoni, creator of numerous ice-cream cakes."
---Larousse Gastronomique, Jenifer Harvey Lang [Crown:New York] 1988 (p. 718)

"[18th century] confectioners's shops [were] very often run by Italians. Consequently ice creams were often called "Italian ice creams" or "Neapolitan ice creams" throughout the nineteenth century, and the purveying of such confections became associated with Italian immigrants."
---The Encyclopedia of American Food and Drink, John F. Mariani [Lebhar-Friedman:New York] 1999 (p. 163)

"Neapolitan ice cream, different flavored layers frozen together....[was] being first being talked about in the 1870s."
---I Hear America Talking, Stuart Berg Flexner [Simon & Schuster:New York] 1979 (p. 191)

The oldest reference to Neapolitan ice cream in The New York Times appeared in 1887. The context? A costume description. While is does not shed light on the origins of the dessert, it does prove the term was understood by the people of the day:

"...in a dress of pink and white stripes, strongly resembling Neapolitan ice cream."
---"Thespians on a Frolic," The New York Times, June 27, 1887 (p. 8)

Some old recipes:


[1883]
"Napolitaine Cream.
To make a form of three colors: Vanilla, chocolate, and strawberry ice-creams are frozen in three different freezers, and filled in a mold the form of a brick in three smooth layers of equal size."
---Practical Cooking and Dinner Giving, Mrs. Mary F. Henderson [Harper & Brothers:New York] 1883 (p. 309)

[1884]
Neapolitan Ice-Cream
---Mrs. Lincoln's Boston Cook Book, Mrs. D.A. Lincoln
[NOTE: there is no mention of molds or using two/three flavors to compose a brick of ice cream.]

[1885]
"Neapolitan or Pinachee Cream Ice.

You must have a Neapolitan box for this ice and fill it up in 3 or 4 layers with different coloured and flavoured ice creams (a water ice may be used with the custards); for instance, lemon, vanilla, chocolate, and pistachio. Mould in the patent ice cave for about 1 1/2 to 2 hours, turn it out, cut it in slices, and arrange neatly on the dish on a napkin or dish-paper."
---The Book of Ices, A. B. Marshall [1885] (p. 18) (Reprinted in Victorian Ices and Ice Cream, Barbara Ketcham Wheaton--includes a picture of Mrs. Marshall's patented ice cave' on page 57, Neapolitan boxes on page 53)

[1894]
"Neapolitan Ices.

These are prepared by putting ices of various kinds and colours into a mould known as a Neapolitan ice box, which, when set and turned out, is cut into slices suitable for serving. However small the pieces, the block should be cut so that each person gets a little of each kind; to do this, slice downwards first, then cut the slices thorugh once or twice in the contrary direction. They are generally laid on a lace paper on an ice plate. Four or five kinds are usually put in the mould, though three sorts will do. The following will serve as a guide in arranging: First, vanilla cream, then raspberry or cherry or currant water; coffee or chocoalte in the middle; the strawberry cream, with lemon or orange or pine-apple water to finish. A cream ice, flavoured with any liqueur, a brown bread cream flavoured with brandy, with a couple of bright-coloured water ices, form another agreeable mixture. Tea cream may be introduced into almost any combination unless coffee be used. Banana cream, pistachio or almond cream, with cherry water and damson or strawberry water, will be found very good. The spoon shown [Neapolitan Ice Spoon] has a double use; the bowl is for putting the mixture into the mould, and the handle is for levelling it; naturally, it is equally useful for other ices. The boxes may be had in tin at much less cost than pewter;they are also sold small enought to make single ices, but these are much more troublesome to prepare. After filling the moulds, if no cave, "bed" in ice in the usual way."
---Cassell's New Universal Cookery Book, Lizzie Heritage [Cassell and Company:London] 1894 (p. 967) [NOTE: this book also contains a drawing of a Neapoltian Ice Box.]

[1896]
"Neapolitan or Harlequin Ice Cream.

Two kinds of ice cream and an ice moulded in a brick."
---Boston Cooking-School Cook Book, Fannie Merritt Farmer, facsimile first edition 1896 [Weathervane Books:New York] 1974 (p. 375)
[NOTE: these instructions do not specific flavors.]

[1919]
"Neapolitan ice cream.
---The Hotel St. Francis Cook Book, Victor Hirtzler [Hotel Monthly Press:Chicago] 1919 (p. 95)

[1920?]
Neapolitan Ice Cream

1 cup sugar
2 quarts thin cream
3 egg yolks
1 cup pecan meats
1/2 cup cherries
1/2 cup pineapple
Heat cream. Caramelize sugar and dissolve it in the cream. Add the beaten egg yolks. Cool and partly freeze. Add the cherries, pineapple, and nuts. Mix well. Finish the freezing."
---The International Cook Book, Margaret Weimer Haywood [1920?] (p. 201)

[1924]
"Neapolitan Ice Cream

This is popularly known as a mixture of creams moulded together , as vanilla, strawberry, and pistachio; as a matter of fact, the term really means a cooked rich custard cream."
---Mrs. Allen on Cooking, Menus, Service, Ida C. Bailey Allen c. 1924 [Doubleday, Doran & Company:Garden City NY] 1929 (p. 691)

[1940]
"Neapolitan Ice Cream

1 pint strawberry ice-cream
1 pint pistachio ice-cream
1 pint orange ice
(Any preferred combination of flavors may be used instead of these)
Pack a mold in salt and ice and spread the strawberry ice cream smoothly over the bottom. If it is not very firm, cover and let it stand for a few minutes. Spread a good layer of orange ice upon it, and as soon as this hardens, spread over it the pistachio ice-cream. Cover and freeze."
---The American Woman's Cook Book, edited and revised by Ruth Berolzheimer [Consolidated Book Publishers:Chicago IL] 1940 (p. 569)

See also: Hokey Pokey.

Ice cream novelties
In America, the term "novelty" as it applies to food, is often connected with manufactured portable/individual ice cream treats. Ice cream bars and popsicles were intoduced in the 1920s. They were "novel" (dictionary definition is "new") because they were pre-made. Prior to this time, ice cream was scooped fresh by street/fair vendors,
hokey pokey men, soda jerks, and restauranteurs.


Oyster ice cream?
Our survey of historic cookbooks (USA, English, French), oyster chronicles, and ice cream history books returns one curious recipe for oyster cream, served frozen: Mary Randolph's The Virginia Housewife [1824]. It appears, without comment, listed with various frozen desserts. A close examination of this recipe reveals it would have turned a savory, rather than sweet dish. Recipe placement may speak more to method than course. Perhaps Mrs. Randolph found this recipe a bizarre as we do today. Thomas Jefferson, Mrs. Randolph's relative famous for ice cream experiments, may have liked this item. Might this explain why Mrs. Randolph chose to record it for posterity? We find no print evidence connecting George Washington with this frozen treat, except for coexistence in general period and place.

Fast forward two centuries. Oyster ice cream was featured on the American debut of Iron Chef, a Japanese television competition, 1999. We find no print evidence suggesting this is a traditional Japanese dish or that it tickled American palates.

"The Virginia House-Wife by Mary Randolph, published in 1824, was the first American cookbook with a significant section on ice cream The book became the most influential American cookbook of the nineteenth century and was especially popular in the South...She had many recipes for ices and ice creams...Oddly, among her ice cream recipes was one for frozen oyster cream. This was simply oyster soup, strained and frozen. She did not explain when or, more important, why it would be served."
---Of Sugar and Snow: A History of Ice Cream Making, Jeri Quinzio [University of California Press:Berkeley CA] 2009 (p. 77-78)

[1824]
"Oyster Cream.
Make a rich soup, (see directions for oyster soup,) strain it from the oysters, and freeze it."
---The Virginia Housewife, Mary Randolph, facsimile 1824 edition with historical notes and commentaries by Karen Hess [University of South Carolina Press:Columbia SC] 1984 (p. 175)

"Oyster Soup. Put on two quarts of oysters, with three quarts of water, three onions chopped up, two or three slices of lean ham, pepper and salt; boil it till reduced one half, strain it through a sieve, return the liquid into the pot, put in one quart of fresh oysters, boil it till they are sufficiently done, and thicken the soup with four spoonsful of flour, two gills of rich cream, and the yelks of six new laid eggs beaten well; boil it a few minutes after thickening it put in. Take care that it does not curdle, and that the flour is not in lumps: serve it up wtih the last oysters that were put in. If the flavour of thyme be agreeable you may put in a little, but take care that it does not boil in long enough to discolour the soup."
---ibid (p. 32)

[1999]
"The Imported Japanese cooking show "Iron Chef" won't debut on the Food Network until next Friday-but it's already a cult hit. Ever since the hilariously campy samurai-style cook-off first popped up on a handful of stateside stations, fans have mulled its minutiae. There's lots to talk about: host Kaga Takeshi's Vegasy garb, the merits of bizarre treats like oyster ice cream and imprecations like, "Kimura, I urge you ... demonstrate your skill using various types of oil."
---"TV's samurai chef showdown," Kendal Hamilton, Newsweek, July 5, 1999 (p. 60-61)


Parfait
The orginal parfait was 19th century frozen coffee-flavoured French ice dessert constructed in parfait-shaped (tall and thin) ice cream molds. This dessert was not served in tall, thin glassware as we know today. It was extracted from the mold (of similar shape) and served on decorated plates.

Layered, molded ice cream treats (with fruits, syrups & liqueurs) were quite popular by the mid-19th century both in Europe and America. They were presented in many fabulous shapes much to the delight of diners of all ages. Parfait, as is currently known by Americans is a multi-layered ice cream treat presented in "parfait" glasses. These glasses are typically thin and tall. The parfait is usually made with rich vanilla ice cream accented with liqueur or other other syrup (chocolate, strawberry) . The most notable difference between an American parfait and the ever popular Ice Cream Sundae is the dish. The parfait is presented tall & thin; the sundae is most often served in a wide-mouth glass that may or may not have a stem. The use of liqueur is generally relegated to the parfait. Did you know? Parfait is the French word for "perfect."

"Parfait. An iced dessert made with double (heavy) cream, which gives it smoothness, prevents it from melting too quickly and enables it to be cut into slices. Originally the parfait was a coffee-flavoured ice cream; today, the basic mixture is a flavoured custard-cream, a flavoured syrup mixed with egg yolks or a fruit puree, which is blended with whipped ccream and then frozen. There is a special parfait mould in the shape of a cylindar with one slightly rounded end...In Britain and the United States a parfait is also the name of a whipped dessert."
--Larousse Gastonomique, Completely revised and updated [Clarkson Potter:New York] 2001 (p. 840)

"Parfait. A name properly used of a rich frozen dessert, similar to a bombe and often made in a bombe mold. A typical parfait is composed of two or several elements (a lining for the mould and a filling, which may itself be layered) and is flavoured with a liqueur, or with coffee, chocolate, praline, etc. In North America, the term has come to mean something different, namely a combination of fruit and ice cream, served in a tall narrow glass which exposes to view the various layers of the confection. This sort of parfait is not a frozen dessert. However, the frozen dessert version can be frozen in individual parfait glasses, rather than in a single mould, so there is a relationship between the two different things."
---Oxford Companion to Food, Alan Davidson [Oxford University Press:Oxford] 1999 (p. 575)

The oldest recipe we have with the name parfait is from a French cookbook dated 1869. It is for a coffee-ice confection.

"Parfait au cafe
Roast 1/2 lb. of coffee in a copper pan;
Boil 3 pints of double cream; put the coffee in it; cover the stewpan, and let the coffee steep for an hour;
Put 12 yolks of eggs in a stewpan, with 1/2 lb. of pounded sugar;
Strain the cream; add it to the egg, in the stewpan; stir over the fire, without boiling, until it thickens, and strain it through a tammy cloth;
Set a freezing-pot and a parfait-mould in some pounded ice, and bay salt;
Put the cream in the freezing-pot, and work it with the spatula;
When the cream is partly frozen, add 1/2 gill of syrup at 32 degrees (probably Baume); continue working the cream, and, when the syrup is well mixed, add another 1/2 gill of syrup, and 1 quart of well-whipped cream; Fill the mould with the iced cream; close it hermetically, and embed it in the ice for two hours; Turn the parfait out of the mould on to a napkin, on a dish; and serve."
---The Royal Cookery Book, Jules Gouffe [Chef of the Paris Jockey Club] translated and adapted for English use by Alphonse Gouffe [London: Sampson, Low, Son & Marston] 1869 (p. 562-3)

The Book of Ices, A.B. Marshall [London:Marshall's School of Cookery] 1884 includes a recipe (though not named parfait) is quite similar:

"White coffee cream ice: very delicate
Take a quarter of a pound of fresh roasted Mocha coffee berries, and add them to a pint of cream or milk; let them stand on the stove for an hour, but do not let them boil; strain through tammy; sweeten with 3 ounces of sugar. Freeze and finish as for vanilla ice cream."
---Recipe number 25

Mrs. D. A. Lincoln's recipe for parfait...also a coffee concoction (Boston, 1884)


Philadelphia style ice cream
What is Philadelphia-style ice cream? Excellent question. Generalists claim it is the "finest quality" American frozen confection. Cookbooks and professional industry texts confirm Philadelphia-style ice cream is uncooked. It does not contain whole eggs, though it sometimes contains egg whites.
French ice cream, on the other hand, is a cooked product containing whole eggs.

PHILADELPHIA, HOME OF AMERICAN ICE CREAM
"Philadelphia became renowned for its ice cream, and the phrase 'Philadelphia ice cream,' used since the early nineteenth century, came to mean a specifically American style of rich ice cream. One proud Philadelphia confectioner of the nineteenth century James W. Parkinson,...wrote of the prejudicial distinction made between American and French frozen desserts."
---Encyclopedia of American Food and Drink, John F. Mariani [Lebhar-Friedman:New York] 1999 (p. 163)

"Philadelphia ice cream is a term synonymous with the best in frozen confections. Though not invented here (forms of ice creams have been around since the 13th century) Philadelphians developed an impeccable reputation for ice cream by the end of the 18th century. Victor Collet and James Parkinson built their businesses on elegant glaces and ices impossibly molded into unusual ornaments."
---The Larder Invaded: Reflections on Three Centuries of Philadelphia Food and Drink, Mary Anne Hines, Gordon Marshall, William Woys Weaver [Library Company of Philadelphia:Philadelphia PA] 1987 (p. 57)

"What is this Philadelphia ice cream? It means ice cream "Simon pure," made of the richest ingredients. When American was young and ice cream was "that new dessert." the very best of it was made by the Quakers. So it was that when anyone anywhere wanted to claim high honor for his ice cream he prefixed it with the name Philadelphia. This real-thing ice cream has but three ingredients in its basic recipe: cream, sugar and a touch of the vanilla bean. Fruits and other flavors can be added as you will..."
---"How America Eats," Clementine Paddleford, Los Angeles Times, May 8, 1949 (p. F36)

"Everyone knows Philadelphia as the city of brotherly love where our independence was declared in 1776, but how may of you are aware that it is the ice cream capital of the country, maybe of the world? When Philadelphia became the seat of government and George Washington the first President, "iced creams" as they were then called were often served at the presidential Thursday dinners. We believe they were not quite the same as our luscious delights made commercially or at home in an ice cream freezer, but were mixtures of cream, sugar and eggs beaten in metal bowls over ice so that they had more the texture of the soft ice cream sold in certain places today. After the great exposition of 1876 Philadelphia became known across the country for the excellence of its ice cream, by then a popular American delicacy, and to this day the words "Philadelphia ice cream" connote the highest quality. Philadelphia confectioners were famed for their ice cream."
---"Philly the Ice Cream Capital," James A. Beard, Los Angeles Times, August 5, 1971 (p. J4)

LEGAL DEFINITIONS
In the early 20th century, Pure Food and Drug laws were enacted to ensure standardized quality for the American consumer. The legal definition of ice cream, including Philadelphia style, was the topic of hot debate. In 1916, the US Supreme Court acknowledged two definitions for Philadelphia ice cream: Hutchinson Ice Cream V. Iowa (242 US) 153 [1916]:

"The ice cream of commerce is not iced or frozen cream. It is a frozen confection-a compound. The ingredients of this compound may vary widely in character, in the number used, and in the proportions in which they are used. These variations are dependent upon the ingenuity, skill, and judgment of the maker, the relative cost at a particular time or at a particular place of the possible ingredients, and the requirements of the market in respect to taste or selling price. Thus, some Philadelphia ice cream is made of only cream, sugar, and a vanilla flavor. In making other Philadelphia ice cream the whites of eggs are added; and according to some formulas vanilla ice cream may be made without any cream or milk whatsoever; for instance, by proper manipulation of the yolks of eggs, the whites of eggs, sugar, syrup, and the vanilla bean. All of these different compounds are commonly sold as ice cream; and none of them is necessarily unwholesome."
SOURCE: Findlaw, US Supreme Court Cases

"Our tariffs have supplied diverting examples showing that laws are not always what they seem, and not always passed for the assigned motive, whether personal or partisan. But these examples usually are too obscure for popular understanding. Generally, such incidents pertain to the higher circles into which the common people are intruders...The highest court in the land has within a few weeks pondered over the problem of what is ice cream, and whether there can be such a thing as ice cream without a drop of cream..."Some Philadelphia ice cream"--only "some"--is made of only cream, sugar, and a vanilla flavor." Happy those who get it. But observe, either Philadelphia ice creams, number unstated, "may be made without any milk or cream whatsoever; for instance, by proper manipulation of the yolks of eggs, the whites of eggs sugar, syurp and the vanilla bean. All of these different compounds are commonly sold as ice cream, and none of them is necessarily unwholesome. The people's prosecutor claimed that it was a fraud and a crime to sell ice cream without at least a specified percentage of cream. The sellers of the miscellanous and mysterious compound defended on the ground that one man has a good a right as another to say what he shall put into his ice cream formula. But the Supreme Court found that the buyer also has his rights. He had the right to know what he is buying, and he cannot know without laws implementing standards on the point to which he attaches most importance, that at least some milk and butter shall be included in what he buys as ice cream."
---"How Taxation and Regulation of Food Works," Edward A. Bradford, New York Times, March 4, 1917 (p. SM6)

Current US definitions are set forth in the Code of Federal Regulations: TITLE 21--FOOD AND DRUGS CHAPTER I--FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PART 135_FROZEN DESSERTS. There is no specific reference to "Philadelphia" in the current regulations. There are references to "French" ice cream, contain egg yolks.

"(f) Nomenclature. (1) The name of the food is ``ice cream''; except that when the egg yolk solids content of the food is in excess of that specified for ice cream by paragraph (a) of this section, the name of the food is ``frozen custard'' or ``french ice cream'' or ``french custard ice cream''."
SOURCE: CFR/GPO

SURVEY OF HISTORIC RECIPES
[1792]
Ice Cream (recipe published in Philadelphia)

"Ice Creams. Take a dozen ripe apricots, pare them very thin and stone them, scald and put them into a mortar, and beat them fine; put to them six ounces of double refined sugar, a pint of scalding cream, and rub it through a sieve with the back of a spoon; then put it into a tine with a close cover, and set it in a tub of ice broken small, with four handsful of salt mixt among the ice; when you see your cream get thick round the edges of your tin, stir it well, and put it in again till it becomes quite thick; when the cream is all froze up, take it out of the tin, and put it into the mould you intend to turn it out of: mind that you put a piece of paper on each end, between the lids and the ice cream, put on the top lid, and have another tub of ice ready, as before, put the mould in the middle, with the ice under and over it; let it stand four hours, and do not turn it out before you want it; then dip the mould into cold spring water, take off the lids and paper, and turn it into a plate. You may do any sort of fruit the same way.
---The New Art of Cookery, According to the Present Practice, Richard Briggs [W. Spotswood, R. Campbell, and B. Jonhson:Philadelphia PA] 1792 (p. 399-400)

[1846]
Philadelphia Ice Cream
(egg whites only):

[1849]
Cream Ice
(from Parkinson's Complete Confectioner, Philadelphia)

[1884]
Ice Cream, No. 1,
Philadelphia (no eggs)

[1886]
Philadelphia Ice Cream
(no eggs, editorial comment unfavorable): [1896]
Vanilla Ice Cream: Philadelphia
(no eggs)

[1924]
"Philadelphia Ice cream.
Three pints of cream, one pint of milk, three-fourths pound confectionery sugar, whites of two eggs, one and one-half tablespoonfuls of vanilla. Mix uncooked, stand in freezer until thoroughly chilled, then freeze."
---The Carbondale Cook Book, prepared by the Young Lady Workers of the Methodist Episcopal Church of Carbondale, PA [International Textbook Press:Scranton PA], Seventh edition, revised and enlarged, 1924 (p. 111)

[1925]
"Trade Definitions Perfected by Usage
. All ice creams are clasiffed by the ice-cream trade according to both ingredients and methods of preparation. Philadelphia ice cream is made without eggs. Neapolitan, Delmonico and French ice cream call for eggs, and include cream with a cooked body. But cooked body creams, made with eggs, flour or cornstarch, and cream or milk, are more properly designated Frozen Custards."
---The Dispenser's Formulary, compiled by The Soda Fountain, [Soda Fountain Publications:New York] 1925, 4th edition (p. 25)

[1963]
Anna Wetherill Reed's The Philadelphia Cook Book of Town and Country [Bramhall House:NY] 1963 offers several ice cream recipes. None of them are specificially titled "Philadelphia." Nor do any of them include eggs or egg yolks.

[1970]
"Philadelphia Ice Cream

2 pt. half and half or heavy cream
1 cup sugar
1/8 tsp. salt
2 tbsp. vanilla
Scald cream, add sugar and salt and stir until dissolved. Cool, then stir in vanilla. Chill in refrigerator at least 2 hr. Freeze in churn freezer, turing slowly until crank turns hard, then increase speed and turn rapidly about 10 min. longer to whip. Ice cream should be very stiff. Remove dasher and repack ice cream to ripen 2 to 3 hr. Makes about 2 quarts."
---"Recipes for Your Ice Cream Churn," Los Angeles Times, July 16, 1970 (p. E8)


Popsicles
Ice cream, ices and other frosty treats were sold in cities, amusement parks, boardwalks and and resort areas in the during WWI by a number of portable vehicles. These ranged from hand-pushed carts to goat-pulled mini-wagons to bicycle-propelled carts to horsedrawn/electric trucks. Folks who make a living selling ice treats from carts were known as "hokey pokey" men. How long before these treats would melt? That would be determined by the quality of the cart and the temperature of the day. The history of the popsicle is a fascnating topic unto itself. Like the history of many popular frozen treats, it is full of conflicting claims and culinary folklore. While Frank Epperson is generally credited for "inventing" the popsicle (first called the Epsicle, after himself), there is ample evidence that frozen fruit treats and juice bars existed in the late 19th century. These treats were often hawked by people of Italian descent, who were versed in the fine art of granita. Even the Epperson story has many "versions." The Epperson story sticks not because he was the first, but because he was the first to mass market this product.

About Frank Epperson's popsicle

"The third member of the great novelty trimuvirate of the 1920s was born on a cold eureka-shouting morning in New Jersey in 1923. The inventor was Frank Epperson, who made lemonade from a specially prepared powder that he sold at an Oakland, California, amusement park. While visiting friends in New Jersey, he prepared a batch of special lemonade and inadvertantly left a glass of it on a windowsill with a spoon in it. The temperature went down below zero during the night and in the morning Epperson saw the glass. He picked it up by the spoon handle and ran hot water over the glass freeing the frozen mass. In his hand was the first Epsicle, later to be known as the Popsicle. Epperson saw immediately the potential of what he held in his hand and applied for a patent, which was granted in 1924. He was fortunate, because research conducted by The Ice Cream Review in 1925 revealed that a major ice cream company was experimenting with "frozen suckers" at the time of the windowsill incident, and as far back as 1872 two men doing business as Ross and Robbins sold a frozen-fruit confection on a stick, which they called the Hokey-Pokey."
---Great American Ice Cream Book, Paul Dickson [Atheneum:New York] 1972 (p. 83)

"In 1905 an eleven-year-old boy named Frank Epperson, of Oakland, California, accientally left a mixing stick in a glass of juice on a windowsill while visiting friends in New Jersey. The juice froze with the stick in it, enabling the ice to be held in the hand and licked.In 1922 Epperson introduced this new "icelollipop" at a fireman's ball in Oakland, California, and called it an "Epsicle," then later "Popsicle." (Frozen "juice bars" had been known in the nineteenth century, including one called the "Hokey Pokey," but none was marketed well until the Popsicle in 1923.)"
---Encyclopedia of American Food and Drink, John F. Mariani [Lebhar-Friedman] 1999 (p. 165-6)


Ice Cream Sundaes
Who invented the ice cream sundae & why? Excellent question with several answers. Food historians generally agree on the
origin & creative spelling of the name. Why is it served with cherries on top?

"As for the specfic birthplace of the dish, two possibilities emerge as the most likely among many contenders. Neither place can offer conclusive dates, so one can pick between, "Heavenston" (favored by the National Dairy Council, among others) and Two Rivers (championed by such divers sources as the old Ice Cream Review and H.L. Mencken in his American Language). The first claim goes back to the 1890s in Evanston, Illinois (then widely known as "Chicago's Heaven" or "Heavenston"), where civic piety had reached such a state that it became the first American community to recognize and legislate against the "Sunday Soda Menace." This prompted confectioners to create Sundays so that they could do business on the Sabbath. Ironically the soda was later given a strong boost from this community when the Evanston-based Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) championed it as a pleasant alternative to alcoholic drinks. The Two Rivers, Wisconsin, claim goes back to the same era...was created when a youth named George Hallauer went to Ed Berner's soda fountain for a rich of ice cream. As the ice cream was being scooped, the daring Hallauer spied a bottle of chocolate syrup normally used in sodas and asked Berner to pour some of it over his ice cream. Berner sampled the concoction and liked it enough to begin featuring "ice cream with syrup" in his shop for the same price as a dish of ice cream. The name sundae was give to the dish when George Giffy, an ice cream parlor proprietor in nearby Manitowoc, was forced by customer demand to serve the popular Berner concoction. Giffy was convinced that the nickel dish would put him out of business and at first served it only as a Sunday loss leader. In Manitowoc it soon became known as "the Sunday." Giffy found that he was making money on the dish and began advertising his "Ice Cream Sundaes," with the spelling changed so that it would lose its Sunday-only association. Regardless of the origin, by 1900, midwestern soda-fountain supply salesmen were carrying samples of tulip-shaped "Sundae Specials."
---The Great American Ice Cream Book, Paul Dickson [Atheneum:New York] 1972 (p. 64-6)

"Little is known with certainty about the sundae's birth: it originated in the late 1880s or early 1890s; one of the first published sundae recipes appeared in Modern Guide for Soda Dispensers in 1897; and sundaes were very popular by 1900. Many accounts of the sundae's invention have been published, but there is no definative evidence about it. The best-known explanation for the sundae is that it was created to circumvent Blue Laws banning the sale of ice cream sodas on Sunday. Beginning in the colonial era, Blue Laws were promulgated to prohibit certain activities on the Sabbath...Over the years, Blue Laws banned many activities, but enforcement was very lax and sporadic...In 1890, only a few Blue Laws expressly mentioned confectionery or soda water. Maryland banned Sunday sales of soda and mineral waters along with tobacco, candy, and alcoholic beverages. Louisiana specifically permitted Sunday sales at drugstores, apothecary shops, bakeries, restaurants, theaters and other places of amusement as long as no intoxicating drinks were sold. Minnesota allowed the sale of confectioenry, drugs, and medicines "in a quiet and orderly manner." Texas law permitted drugstores to open on Sunday and specified ice cream among the articles that could be sold on the Sabbath. Utah's Blue Laws banned a long list of activities on Sunday, but they permitted many businesses, including drugstores and restaurants, to open. Given the number and scope of the Blue Laws, it is not surprising that the invention of the sundae is often attributed to a druggist trying to circumvent the law against serving soda on Sunday. In one version, President Theodore Roosevelt was responsible for the sundae because he banned ice cream sodas on Sunday and fountain operators responded by creating the new soda-less treat. This tale probably originated because Roosevelt, while serving as head of New York City's Police Board, made well-publicized attempts to enforce the Sunday closing law for saloons. However, it is unlikely that Roosevelt was the father of the ice cream sundae because the New York State legal code specifically permitted the sale of confectionery and drugs on Sunday. The best-known Blue Laws story concerns Evanston, Illinois... Evanston's pious town fathers passed an ordinance prohibiting the sale fo ice cream sodas on the Sabbath. Some ingenious druggist decided to serve ice cream with syrup but no soda, there by complying with the letter of the law, if not the spirit. Evanston's local historians hae identified this clever druggist as either William C. "Deacon" Garwood or Newton P. Williams... In a variation on this theme, Cleveland, Ohio, also claimed to be the birthplace of the sundae...one druggist with a flourishing Sunday trade started serving ice cream topped with fruit. He advertised this treat as a "fruit Sunday," but his regular customers started ordering it on weekdays, too. So he changed the spelling to "sundae."...In another version of the sundae's origin a necessity was the mother invention. A New Orleans druggist had a brisk soda water trade, but one hot day he discovered that his fountain wasn't working properly and he was unable to draw andy soda. However, he had plenty of syrups and ice cream on hand. After hastily conferring with his clerks, he decided to serve ice cream with syrup on top...A similar tale of necessity places the birth of the ice cream sundae at Stoddard Brothers drugstore in Buffalo, New York...Ithaca [NY] also claimed that distinction, and there are two accounts...The Red Cross Pharmacy was located directly across the street from the barroom of the Ithaca Hotel. Because the bar was closed on the Sabbath, the druggist decided to offer a special Sunday treat to attract the bar's displaced clientele to his fountain...The second Ithaca legend involves a young clergyman who regularly stopped at the Christiance and Dofflemeyer Drugstore for a dish of ice cream after his Sunday sermon. One hot Sunday, neither ice cream nor soda water appealed to him because he was in the mood for something different. So he asked the fountain operator to pour cherry syrup over a dish of ice cream. He was delighted with the new treat and named it "Sunday."...Another legend about the sundae's birth recognizes Geroge Hallauer as the father and E.C. Berners as the midwife [Two Rivers, WI]..." ---Sundae Best: A History of Soda Fountains, Anne Cooper Funderburg [Bowling Greeen State University Popular Press:Bowling Green, OH] 2002 (p.61-64)

Why call it "sundae?"
"Since there is no definative answer as to who invented the sundae, it's not surprising that the spelling is also a mystery. However, it is certain that the spelling was not standardized for many decades. Early spelling include sunday, sondie, sundi, sundhi, sundae, and sundaye. Linguists have suggested that sundae ultimately became the standard spelling because religious leaders felt that the word Sunday was sacred and should not be commercialized. They have also theorized that the name was chosen because the dessert was only sold on Sunday or because the Sabbath required a special dessert. According to The Washington Star, the treat was originaly called Friday but was changed to Sunday because Friday was thought to be unlucky."
---Sundae Best, (p. 64-65)

The Dispenser's Formulary [Soda Fountain Publications:New York] 1925 lists 275 sundae recipes! Among the more creative names are: Automobile, Brooklyn Bridge, Bull Mooose, Chaucerian, Chop Suey Mix, Co-ed, Cubanola, Date-with-a peach, Dove of Peace, Fandango Sandwich, Free Lunch, Frou Frou, Gold Dust Twins, Kansas City Sunflower, Malted Grape, Mystery Mix, Panama Surprise, Pike's Peak, Rubaiyat, Tasty Toasty, Uncle Jake, U-Wana and Yama Yama. This book provides guidance on names:

"Words of warning can advantageously be sounded in the matter of naming sundaes. The names in the following pages are standard in many cases. A great number of the following formulas are prize winners in the Soda Fountain's monthly contests and as such, have a wide reputation. There is a always a danger in carrying the fancy name idea too far--for a fine name does not of necesstiy mean a fine sundae, while the too fancy names are apt to be fantastic and even funny to one who possesses a sense of humor. Stick to original names of the sundaes and help to make them more and more standard and uniform...A decidedly local event or an intimate personal touch is the only reasonable excuse that can be advanced for the use of a specially coined name." (p. 105)

Why put cherries on top?
Simple. They look good! About
maraschino cherries.

"In serving sundaes it is important that the appeal should be made to the eye as well as to the palate. It is poor policy to slap together a messy concoction. Never let the syrups run over the edge of the sundae glass. See that the handle of the spoon is not sticky with syrup. Place nuts, cherries, or knobs of whipped cream carefully on the sundae so that the effect may be pleasing."
---Dispenser's Formulary [Soda Fountain Publications:New York] 1925 (p. 104)

"Sundaes and Fancy Ice Cream Dishes.
Before the idea of topping ice cream with nuts, fruits and fancy dressings originated, soda dispensers were more or less handicapped to show distinct forms of originality. Now the mixture of ice creams, and the arrangements of fancy dishes not only furnishes the dispenser an outlet for his ideas, but they produce a big revenue for the modern soda fountain. In serving ice cream, it is suggested that a china or silver cup be used. Wafers, mints, and other tidbits are very nice to serve along with the ice cream. A small glass of ice water should always be served with each order. The following formulas are for plain and fancy sundaes or eclairs:

Cherry Sunday
1 disher of vanilla ice cream
Ladle of cherries and top with a large red cherry
...
White Cherry Sundae
1 disher of vanilla ice cream
Ladle of white cherries. Top with a large white cherry
...
French Violet Sunday
Place a disher of vanilla ice cream in a sundae cup and over it pour a ladle of French violet
bisque... Top with a red cherry
...
Chong special
Into a tall slender frappe glass place a small disher of strawberry ice cream, enough to fill about one-half of the glass. Over this pour a little caramel syrup, then in the remainder of the glass place a disher of chocolate ice cream. Over this pour a ladle of marshmallow dressing, sprinkle with ground nuts, and top with a whole cherry.
...
Fountain special
Into a tall slender frappe glass place a small disher of vanilla ice cream. Pour a little marshmallow dressing over this. Fill remainder of glass with small disher of strawberry ice cream. Top with butterscotch dressing, and over this sprinkle toasted
---Rigby's Reliable Candy Teacher, W. O. Rigby [1916?] (p. 229-231)
[NOTE: a "disher" is an ice cream scoop.]

Recommended reading: A Month of Sundaes, Michael Truback


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27 April 2014